Collaboration 2.0 through the New Organization (2.0) Transformation

Collaboration 2.0 through the New Organization (2.0) Transformation

Imed Boughzala (TELECOM Business School, France)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61350-195-5.ch001
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Abstract

This chapter introduces a new holistic organization transformation (i.e. Organization 2.0) caused by changes in the act of collaboration (i.e. Collaboration 2.0) due to the emergence of Web 2.0 technologies and their use by a new generation of people called Gen Y. Organization 2.0 is based on Social Capital where end-user participation, emergence of social networks and online communities, mass collaboration, and open innovation, have become new levers to put collective intelligence (e.g. crowdsourcing) at the service of the organization, to boost its performance, and to develop its creative capabilities. This chapter tries to sort out confusion that may exist between different concepts like Web 2.0, Enterprise 2.0, Collaboration 2.0, Management 2.0, KM 2.0, Organization 2.0, et cetera.
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Introduction

Due to the advent of Web 2.0 technologies in the last few years, new usages of information and knowledge sharing have emerged, i.e. the Enterprise 2.0 (or Enterprise Social Software) which is a new culture of technology usage. Enterprise 2.0 refers to “the use of Web 2.0, emergent social software platforms within companies, or between companies and their partners or customers” as defined initially by Andrew McAfee (McAfee, 2006) but has since evolved to cover further dimensions and areas of application (marketing 2.0, e-government 2.0, health 2.0, research 2.0, etc). The new generation of hypermodern employees (Generation Y or Gen Y) has developed new habits at work. They use everyday Web 2.0 technologies (blogs, wikis, RSS1, social networking platforms, folksonomy, podcasting, mashups, virtual worlds, etc) in the private arena and, therefore, consider that such technologies for collaboration and self-organizing are the best means/methods to work. This generation has developed a new type of collaboration practice through intensive Web 2.0 usage, which is emergent (not planned and informal), open (indifferent to the organizational borders) and massive (implies crowds). This collaboration is called Collaboration 2.0 (Coleman & Levine, 2008; § Table 1). Collaboration 2.0 is one of the major activities in Enterprise 2.0.

Table 1.
Comparison of traditional organization and organization 2.0 (Boughzala, 2009b)
Organization 1.0Organization 2.0
Web 1.0Web 2.0
Technology (extract from Boughzala & Limayem, 2010)
and usage
Task oriented toolsUser-centered tools
Overly complex toolsEasy to use and to install tools
Rigid toolsFlexible tools
Passive with a static contentParticipatory and customizable with a dynamic content
Generated by professionalsGenerated by users themselves
More significant investment – usually only for large companiesLess significant investment – even for SMEs
Dedicated technologiesCollaboration IT-based features embedded in technologies
Enterprise 1.0Enterprise 2.0
Casual useIntensive and embedded use
Professional usePrivate and professional use
Project managementSocial networking and mass collaboration
Collaboration 1.0Collaboration 2.0
People and Work modeUser of knowledgeGenerator of knowledge
Individual actionSocial participation
One-to-manyMany-to-many
Programmed information-based collaborationEmergent and open knowledge-based collaboration
ControllingSelf-organizing
Culture of productionCulture of awareness and innovation
ReactiveProactive
Production skillsSocial and collaboration Skills
Task completionPurpose sharing
IndividualizationSocialization
Process and Organizational structureStandardizationAdoption/Emergence
Structured – modeled processFreeform – Ad-hoc process
Prescriptive in natureEmergent in nature
Precise / predefined boundariesFuzzy/open boundaries
Production driven process
Task oriented
Collaboration driven process
Socio-emotional oriented
Siloed and opaque organizationopen and transparent organization
Project teams - inclusiveOpen teams – progressive
Virtual teams/communities
More co-located teamsMore dispersed teams
KM 1.0KM 2.0
Information-
Knowledge
Information capital
Knowledge capital
Collaboration capital
Social capital
Local access to informationGlobal/Live access to information
Knowledge Management (extract from Boughzala & Limayem, 2010)
Place and role of Knowledge worker
KnowledgeKnowledge, its space of socialization and holders
Impersonal and personal KnowledgeImpersonal, personal and interpersonal Knowledge
Expert knowledgeAny knowledge from any individual
Individual intelligenceCollective intelligence
Non-centralCentral
Intra organizational knowledgeIntra and Inter organizational knowledge
Management 1.0Management 2.0
Management modeHierarchy“Wirearchy” - Network
Vertical organizationHorizontal/Flat organization
BureaucracyAgility
Information-centricKnowledge and People -centric
Authoritarian environmentCollaborative environment
Implied structureEmergent structure
Long time-to-market cyclesShort time-to-market cycles
Centralization of controlDistribution of control
Separate projectsHolistic approach
Project managementNetwork and community animation
DecisionInfluence
Project managerFacilitator (Champion/coordinator/animator)
Top-Down planningBottom-up planning
Scheduled actionsOn demand actions
Limited/Restricted access to the planOrganized/Unlimited access to the plan
Limited communications within teamUnlimited communications within team
ControlCommunication and empowerment

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