Commercial Transportation Services

Commercial Transportation Services

Stella Tkatchova (Interstellar, Belgium)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-105-8.ch001

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“In my own view, the important achievement of Apollo was a demonstration that humanity is not forever chained to this planet, and our visions go rather further than that, and our opportunities are unlimited.”

Neil Armstrong


2. Nasa Funding For 2011

In 2010 the Obama administration completely changed the direction of the American space exploration program and proposed the extension of ISS utilisation, encouragement of the development of commercial crew and cargo transportation services and human space flight mission to Mars after 2035. The new NASA budget for 2011 will invest in the following areas (NASA, 2010):

  • 1.

    Transformative technology developments and development of technology demonstrations to pursue new approaches to space exploration - NASA is planning to invest $7.8 billion over five years to develop cost effective technologies and develop technologies, such as in-orbit refuelling and storage.

  • 2.

    Robotic precursor missions to multiple destinations in the solar system - NASA is planning to invest $3 billion for five years in the development of robotic missions that identify hazards and planetary resources for human visitation and habitation.

  • 3.

    Research and development on heavy-lift and propulsion technologies - NASA is planning to invest $3.1 billion over five years for R&D in the area of development of new launch systems, propellants, materials and combustion processes.

  • 4.

    Development of US commercial space-flight capabilities

  • 5.

    Extension of future launch capabilities, including modernizing the Kennedy Space Centre after the Space Shuttle retirement

  • 6.

    Extension and increased utilization of the ISS until 2020 - NASA has allocated $2 billion for over 4 years (see Figure 1) to support the extension of International Space Station (ISS) until 2020, increase space station capabilities, and support scientific research.

  • 7.

    Development of cross-cutting technology aimed at improving NASA, other government and commercial space capabilities in new key areas, such as communications, sensors, robotics, materials and propulsions

  • 8.

    Accelerating the next wave of Climate change research and observations and next generation of green aviation

  • 9.

    Planetary science - NASA proposes an increased budget for the identification of Near Earth Objects (NEO), a Mars Science Laboratory, a Europa Jupiter System Mission and many others.

  • 10.

    Education including focus on Science Technology Education and Mathematics (STEM)

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