Common Core Standards for Mathematical Practice and TPACK: An Integrated Approach to Instruction

Common Core Standards for Mathematical Practice and TPACK: An Integrated Approach to Instruction

Jayme Linton (Lenior-Rhyne University, USA) and David Stegall (Newton-Connover City Schools, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8111-8.ch005
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This chapter seeks to answer the guiding question: How does the TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge) framework influence how technology can support the implementation of the Common Core Standards for Mathematical Practice? The authors provide an overview of the Standards for Mathematical Practice and an application of the TPACK framework to the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Classroom scenarios describe how teachers can use the TPACK framework to integrate technology into the Standards for Mathematical Practice from kindergarten to eighth grade. The authors conclude with implications for professional developers, teacher educators, and administrators as they work to develop teachers' TPACK and prepare teachers for implementing the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics.
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Integrating technology into the curriculum has been a recent shift occurring in the past ten years (Niess, 2005). Although staff developers, and therefore teachers, have tended to focus on technology itself rather than on how it can be used in the classroom, we agree with Mishra and Koehler (2006) that simply “knowing how to use technology is not the same as knowing how to teach with it” (p. 1033). Technology integration is complex, requiring teachers to possess not only technological knowledge and skills but also an awareness of how to facilitate learning with technology. According to the National Council for Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), technology has the potential to empower mathematics teachers and students. However, there is very little mention of technology in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. NCTM commented on the newly-released standards:

Unless technology is woven throughout these standards, the credibility of any claim that they will better prepare students in the 21st century is diminished. Moreover, without ties to technology, many of these standards read like school expectations from the last century rather than expectations intended to equip students for a mathematical future in the 21st century (National Council for Teachers of Mathematics, 2010, n.d.).

The TPACK framework can provide the missing support that teachers need to effectively integrate technology within the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) is a framework for technology integration developed by Mishra and Koehler (2006), extending Shulman’s work on pedagogical content knowledge. Shulman (1986) defined pedagogical content knowledge as the blending of content and pedagogy into an understanding of how to organize and represent subject matter to enhance the learning of it. The TPACK framework adds a third dimension—technology—to the knowledge needed for effective instruction. TPACK is the foundation of good teaching with technology that requires teachers to understand not only their content knowledge and effective pedagogical strategies but also how technology can be utilized to strengthen teaching and improve student learning (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). While technological knowledge has typically been viewed as a separate set of skills isolated from knowledge of content and pedagogy, the TPACK model emphasizes the interaction of these three types of knowledge. TPACK helps teachers find answers to questions that guide instructional planning:

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