Communication Architectures and Services for Intelligent Transport Systems

Communication Architectures and Services for Intelligent Transport Systems

Marina Aguado (University of the Basque Country, Spain), Nerea Toledo (University of the Basque Country, Spain), Marion Berbineau (IFSTTAR, Institut Français des Sciences et Technologies des Transports, de l’Aménagement et des Réseaux, France) and Eduardo Jacob (University of the Basque Country, Spain)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-0209-0.ch010
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Abstract

Current challenges in mobility and sustainable development are closely related to increasing travel safety, optimizing the use of transport infrastructure, reducing operating and maintenance costs and making public transport more attractive. The proposed solutions to these major challenges depend to a high extent, on political decisions, development of good practices, and also on the innovation and technology introduced through on-going Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) programs and initiatives. This chapter provides an overview on the communication architectures able to support these ITS programs. In order to do so, this chapter presents the current standardization initiatives in the vehicular environment, a description from the telecom point of view of the different ITS services, and finally, a survey on the radio access technologies capable of dealing with such a demanding scenario.
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Communication Architectures For The Vehicular Scenario

Standardization Initiatives

One of the most significant characteristic of the ITS context is the amount of agents that have to cooperate in the definition of a communication architecture. These agents embrace vehicle manufacturers; ISPs (Internet Service Providers) with a large heterogeneity in the access network; Internet mobility operators that aim at managing the mobility of the ongoing communications; governmental organizations that are expected to legislate the infrastructure deployment and its utilization; and standardization bodies who are in charge of defining standardized protocols and procedures. Having such a variety, the introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the ITS context requires strong mutual effort for decision taking and best solution design.

Due to its major role in the design of communication architectures, this section focuses on the standardization initiatives that have been undertaken throughout standardization organizations like the ISO, ETSI or the IEEE. It is worth pointing that having detected that ITS is an essential technology, standardization organizations have established ad-hoc working groups between the ETSI, IEEE, IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), ISO and ITU (International Telecommunication Union) for joint development of specifications. We next describe the communication architectures that are currently being standardized.

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The Iso Calm Architecture

Standardization on ITS started in 2001 in ISO, who first named ITS to an evolved transportation scenario where technologies like ICT are introduced. The aim of ISO was to define a basic set of ITS communication standards.

Currently, the definition of a communication architecture for the ITS scenario is going ahead in the Working Group 16 of the ISO Technical Committee 204, which is defining the CALM (Communication Access for Land Mobiles) architecture ([ISO], 2010). CALM defines a framework to enable efficient ITS communication services and applications. The architecture is open and with room for future functionalities considering the difference between the communication technologies and the vehicle lifetimes.

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