Conditions for Effective Detection and Identification of Primary Quantization of Re-Quantized JPEG Images

Conditions for Effective Detection and Identification of Primary Quantization of Re-Quantized JPEG Images

Matthew J. Sorell (University of Adelaide, Australia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-515-5.ch016
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Abstract

The choice of Quantization Table in a JPEG image has previously been shown to be an effective discriminator of digital image cameras by manufacturer and model series. When a photograph is recompressed for transmission or storage, however, the image undergoes a secondary stage of quantization. It is possible, however, to identify primary quantization artifacts in the image coefficients, provided that certain image and quantization conditions are met. This chapter explores the conditions under which primary quantization coefficients can be identified, and hence can be used image source identification. Forensic applications include matching a small range of potential source cameras to an image.
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Jpeg Compression

The JPEG standard is defined in ITU (1993) and the details of the standard are given in Wallace (1991) for the interested reader. There are a number of modes of operation of the JPEG compression algorithm, but we consider only the progressive mode which is designed for lossy compression of continuous-toned images and is ubiquitously implemented in digital cameras and image editing software. The JPEG compression stages are introduced briefly here.

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