Conflicts in the Modern World and Their Impact on International Security

Conflicts in the Modern World and Their Impact on International Security

Ketevan Chakhava
Copyright: © 2022 |Pages: 24
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-9586-2.ch004
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Abstract

The central problem of the theory of international relations is the problem of international conflicts. And this is quite justified, if we bear in mind the goal that has been objectively facing all of humanity in recent decades – this is survival, the prevention of a global thermonuclear catastrophe. Since any armed clash is only an extreme expression of a political conflict, its highest stage, insofar as the study of the causes of conflicts and methods of their settlement, especially at those stages when it is still relatively easy to carry out, has not only theoretical but also great practical importance. An international conflict is a direct or indirect clash of interests of two or more parties (states, groups of states, peoples, political movements) based on the contradictions of an objective or subjective nature between them. By their origin, these contradictions and the problems they generate in relations between states can be territorial, national, religious, economic, military-strategic, scientific and technical, etc.
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Features Of Conflict At The End Of The Xx - Beginning Of The Xxi Century

It is no exaggeration to say that conflicts are as old as the world. They were before the signing of the Westphalian peace treaty - the time taken for the birth point of the system of national States. Conflict situations and disputes will not disappear in the future, because, according to the aphoristic statement of one of the researchers R. Lee, a society without conflicts is a dead society (Chitadze, 2016). Moreover, many authors, particularly L. Coser, emphasizes that the contradictions that underline conflicts, have several positive functions: attract attention to the problem, be forced to seek the ways out of the situation, warn of stagnation - and thereby contribute to global development (Coser, 1957). Indeed, Conflicts are unlikely to be avoided at all.

It is another matter in what form they should be resolved - through dialogue and search for mutually acceptable solutions or armed confrontation. Speaking about the conflicts of the late XX-early XXI century, we should focus on two important issues that are not only theoretical but also practical. Whether the changing nature of conflicts? How can armed forms of conflict be prevented and regulated under modern conditions? The answers to these questions are directly related to the definition of the character of the modern political system and the possibility of its impact. Immediately after the end of the cold war, there were feelings that the world was on the threshold of a conflict-free era of existence. In academic circles, this position was most clearly expressed By F. Fukuyama, when he declared the end of history (Fukuyama, 1989). This position was sufficiently strongly supported by the official community, including the United States, despite the fact, the Republican party was in power at the beginning of the 1990s, as it is known, this party was less likely, compared to Democrats, to share the neo-liberal views.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Mediation: A conflict-solution procedure in which a third party proposes a nonbinding solution to the disputants.

Peace Building: Post-conflict actions predominantly diplomatic and economic that strengthen and rebuild governmental infrastructure and institutions in order to avoid renewed recourse to armed conflict.

Covert Operations: Secret activities undertaken by a state outside its borders through clandestine means to achieve specific political or military goals with respect to another state.

Realism: A paradigm based on the premise that world politics is essentially and unchangeably a struggle among self-interest states for power and position under anarchy, with each competing state pursuing its own national interest.

International Criminal Court (ICC): A court established by the UN for indicting and administering justice to people committing war crimes.

Nation: A collectively whose people see themselves as members of the same group because they share the same ethnicity, culture, or language.

Nonproliferation Regime: Rules to contain arms races so that weapons or technology do not spread to states that do not have them.

Preemptive War: A quick first strike attack that seeks to defeat an adversary before it can organize an initial attack or a retaliatory response.

Arms Race: The buildup of weapons and armed forces by two or more states that threaten each other, with the competition driven by the conviction that gaining a lead is necessary for security.

Failed States: Countries whose governments have so mismanaged policy that their citizens in rebellion, threaten revolution to divide the country into separate independent states.

International Criminal Tribunals: Special tribunals established by the UN prosecute those responsible for war time atrocities and genocide bring justice to victims and deter such crimes.

Genocide: The attempt to eliminate in whole or in part, an ethnic, racial religious or national minority group.

Diversionary Theory of War: The hypothesis that leaders sometimes initiate conflict abroad as a way of increasing national public attention away from controversial domestic issues and internal problems.

Zero-Sum: An exchange in a purely conflictual relationship in which what is gained by one competitor is lost by another.

Ethnic Groups: People whose identity is primarily defined by their sense of sharing a common ancestral nationality, language, cultural heritage, and kinship.

Civil Wars: Wars between opposing groups within the same country or by rebels against the government.

Nonlethal Weapons: The wide array of soft kill low- intensify method of incapacitating an enemy’s people, vehicles, communications system, or entire cities without killing either combatants or non-combatants.

Non-Aligned States: Countries that do not form alliances with opposed great-powers and practice neutrality on issues that divide great powers.

Negotiation: Diplomatic dialogue and discussion between two or more parties with the goal of resolving through give- and-take bargaining perceived differences of interests and the conflict they cause.

Ethnic Nationalism: Devotion to a cultural, ethnic, or linguistic community.

Just War Doctrine: The moral criteria identifying when a war may be undertaken and how it should be fought once it begins.

Détente: In general, a strategy of seeking to relax tensions between adversaries to reduce the possibility of war.

Pacifism: The liberal idealist school of ethical thought that recognizes no conditions that justify the taking of another human’s life even when authorized by a head of state.

Alliances: Coalitions that form when two or more states combine their military capabilities and promise to coordinate their policies to increase mutual security.

Jus in Bello: A component of just war doctrine that sets limits on the acceptable use of force.

Cold War: The 42-year (1949-1991) rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union, as well as their competing coalitions, which sought to contain each other’s expansion and win worldwide predominance.

Xenophobia: The suspicious dislike disrespect, and disregard for members of a foreign nationality ethnic or linguistic group.

Decolonization: The achievement of sovereign independence by countries that were once colonies of the great powers.

Coup d’etat: A sudden, forcible takeover of government by a small group within that country, typically carried out by violent or illegal means with the goal of installing their own leadership in power.

Disarmament: Agreements to reduce or destroy weapons or other means of attack.

Peaceful Coexistence: Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev`s 1956 doctrine that war between capitalist and communist states is not inevitable and that inter - bloc competition could be peaceful.

Ethnic Cleansing: The extermination of an ethnic minority group by a state.

Neutrality: The legal doctrine that provides rights for the state to remain nonaligned with adversaries waging war against each other.

Intraspecific Aggression: Killing members of one`s species.

Crisis: A situation in which the threat of escalation to warfare is high and the time available for making decisions and reaching compromised solutions in negotiation is compressed.

Peace Operations: A general category encompassing both peacekeeping and peace enforcement operations undertaken to establish and maintain peace between disputants.

Peacemaking: The process of democracy mediation negotiation or other forms of peaceful settlement that arranges an end to a dispute and resolves the issues that led to conflict.

International Aggression: killing others that are not members of one’s own species.

Crimes Against Humanity: A category of activities, made illegal at the Nuremberg war crime trials, condemning states that abuse human rights.

Just War Theory: The theoretical criteria under which it is morally permissible or just for a state to go to war and the methods by which a just war might be fought.

Hard Power: The ability to exercise international influence by means of a country’s military capabilities.

Nationalism: A mindset glorifying a particular state and the nationality group living in it which sees the states interest as a supreme value.

Neocolonialism (Neo Imperialism): The economic rather than military domination of foreign countries.

Refugees: People who flee for safety to another country because of a well-founded fear of political persecution, environmental degradation, or famine.

Arms Control: Multilateral or bilateral agreements to contain arms races by setting limits on the number and types of weapons states are permitted.

National Security: A country's psychological freedom from fears that the state will be unable to resist threats to its survival and national values emanating from abroad or at home.

Irredentism: A movement by an ethnic national group to recover control of lost territory by force so that the new state boundaries will no longer divide the group.

Humanitarian Intervention: The use of peacekeeping troops by foreign states or international organizations to protect endangered people from gross violations of their human rights and from mass murder.

National Interest: The goals that states pursue to maximize what they perceive to be selfishly best for their country.

Armed Aggression: Combat between the military forces of two or more states or groups.

International Court of Justice (ICJ): The primary court established by the United Nations for resolving legal disputes between states and providing advisory opinions to international agencies and the UN General Assembly.

Imperialism: The policy of expanding state power through the conquest and or military domination of foreign territory.

Military-Industrial Complex: A combination of defense establishments, contractors who supply arms for them and government agencies that benefit from high military spending which act as a lobbying coalition to pressure governments to appropriate large expenditures for military preparedness.

National Character: The collective characteristics ascribed to the people within a state.

Bandwagoning: The tendency for weak states to seek alliance with the strongest power, irrespective of that power’s ideology or type of government, in order to increase their security.

Ethnicity: Perceptions of likeness among members of a particular racial grouping leading them to prejudicially view other nationality groups as outsiders.

Peace Enforcement: The application of military force to warring parties or the threat of it normally pursuant to international authorization to compel compliance with resolutions or with sanctions designed to maintain or restore peace and order.

Military Intervention: Over or covert use of force by one or more countries in order to affect the target counties government and policies.

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