Consumption, Anti-Consumption and Consumption Communities: The Football Clubs and its Fans

Consumption, Anti-Consumption and Consumption Communities: The Football Clubs and its Fans

Sandra Maria Correia Loureiro (Business Research Unit (BRU-IUL), Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Lisboa, Portugal), Ana Regina Pires (University of Aveiro, Portugal) and Ricardo Cayolla (University of Aveiro, Portugal)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-5880-6.ch023
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Broadly, consumerism can be considered as a set of beliefs and values integrated into, but not exclusive to, the global market system, intended to make people believe that happiness is best achieved through possessions. In literature there are several other definitions of consumerism, consumption, anti-consumption and consumption communities. Therefore, the purpose of this chapter is to (i) present an overview of the research concepts, models and main theories of this topic, based on a systematic literature review and using the following databases to search information: Elsevier, Emerald, Science Direct, EBSCO, Springer, and ISI web knowledge; (ii) formulate a framework of consumption waves and anti-consumption motivations and types (iii) discuss consumption and anti-consumerism in football (soccer) context. The current study also carried out semi-structured interviews with 15 football fans with an average duration of 60 minutes each. Findings revealed four main types of anti-consumption: Global impact consumers or anti-consumption society; Selective consumption or anti-loyalists market activists; Conservative or Simplifiers; and Rejection of brand hegemony. Football fans are avid consumers of many products, such as information, knowledge, travels, tickets to matches, and diverse merchandizing from brands that sponsor the team and the club. Nevertheless, they are also selective consumers, rejecting everything connected to the rival clubs. Finally, the chapter provides insights for further research and managerial implications. In this vein, this chapter contributes to the existing literature giving insights for a better understanding of football clubs and fans as consumers and anti-consumers.
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Systematic Literature Review On Consumerism And Consumption

The search strategy of the present systematic review was implemented by using an automated search. The aim of this procedure is to collect information and increase the knowledge about consumerism and consumption. We intend to identify, document and conceptualize the key ideas of these concepts.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Systematic Literature Review: Retrieve, appraise and summarise all the available evidence on a specific thematic (designed to reduce the effect of the reviewers' own bias; the appropriate resources should be in place before undertaking a review; identify relevant work; extract relevant data on outcomes and quality; summarise the evidence; and, interpret the evidence).

Consumption Communities: Consumption in online environments (social networking sites, websites, blogs and other online sites become the new marketplace), green and ethical consumption.

Consumerism: A set of beliefs and values, integral but not exclusive to the system of capitalist globalization, intended to make people believe that human worth is best ensured and happiness is best achieved in terms of our consumption and possessions ( Sklair, 2010 , p. 135)

Consumption: Use of goods and services in which the object or activity becomes simultaneously a practice in the world and a form in which we construct our understandings of ourselves in the world ( Miller, 1995 , p. 30).

Anti-Consumption: A resistance to, distaste of, or even resentment or rejection of consumption more generally ( Zavestoski, 2002 , p. 121).

Consumption Society: Individualism and materialism have led individuals to purchase goods regardless of their usefulness; high degree of dependence on consumables ( McCracken, 1990 ).

Football Fans: A way of being with repercussions at professional and family levels; it is a unique experience, with rituals, a pride in the club, a lifetime experience, sometimes more important than family and work.

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