Control of Advanced Fodder Disinfection in Terms of Economic Criteria

Control of Advanced Fodder Disinfection in Terms of Economic Criteria

Alexandr Dubrovin (Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM, Russia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7573-3.ch016

Abstract

Upon long-term storage, germinated grain with 50-60% humidity begins to mold and rot. Therefore, it should be fed off to livestock as soon as possible after its germination. To extend storage life of germinated grain, it is necessary either to dry it to 14% relative humidity, or to carry out its disinfection. Grain forms the basis of combined fodder in agriculture. Some technological solutions are available to provide fodder disinfection optimized in technological or economic terms, as well as rational energy use, including disinfection by high-speed electron bunches, ultra-high frequency electric waves, combined IR and conductive (contact) electric heating, and toxic ozone gas. There also exists a similar solution for fodder premises disinfection through controlling excessive pressure of their internal air. In control by technological (production) criterion, the mode of minimal integrated cost of calculated loss of quality (expenditures) of products being disinfected (fodder) is determined, so the highest livestock productivity in the current context is obtained.
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Introduction

Upon long-term storage (over 4…5 hours) germinated grain with 50…60% humidity begins to mold and rot. Therefore, it should be fed off to livestock as soon as possible after its germination. To extend storage life of germinated grain it is necessary either to dry it to 14% relative humidity (Vendin S.V. et al., 2015), or to carry out its disinfection. The Grain is the basis of combined fodder in agriculture.

Some technological solutions are available to provide fodder disinfection optimized, for example (Vasant, P., & Voropai, N., 2016; Vasant P. et al., 2018), in technological or economic terms, as well as rational energy use (Kharchenko, V. & Vasant P., 2018; Vasilyev A. N., 2013; Vasiliev A.N. et al., 2016), including disinfection by high-speed electron bunches (Dubrovin A.V., 20.11.2014), ultra-high frequency electric waves (Mohapatra, G. et al., 2014; Budnikov D.A. et al., 2018; Dubrovin A.V.,03.07.2017; Syrovatka V.I., 2014), combined infrared and conductive (contact) electric heating (Dubrovin A.V., 31.05.2017; Shuvalov A.M. et al., 2014), and toxic ozone gas (Granella, S. et al., 2018; Abhijit, S, Sambit D. & Pooja S., 2017; Mason, L.J. et al., 2014; Dubrovin A.V., 19.01.2017; Pershin A.F. et al., 2014). There also exists a similar solution for fodder premises disinfection through controlling excessive pressure of their internal air (Dubrovin A.V., 16.03.2017; Zhiltsov V.I., 1979).

The minimal sum of the cost of calculated loss of fodder being disinfected, and of operational energy costs for radiation processing and transportation of fodder and other agricultural products, is automatically determined. In terms of radiation doze value, functional dependence of expenditures Zprod1 on losses of livestock and poultry productivity because of fodder contamination with microorganisms and fungi in the absence of radiation or at its low level, are artificially developed (Dubrovin A.V., 20.11.2014). Dependences of economic expenditures Zоst1 on losses of fodder and other products because of their excessive radiation with high-speed electron bunches interacting with the cellular structure of fodder and other products biomass, are also determined.

The first of these dependences Zprod1is nonlinearly decreasing with irradiance radiation Poblgrowth, starting from a specific level of biomaterial contamination with microorganisms and fungi, known in advance on the results of measuring hygienic quality of materials to be sterilized by nanosecond electric impulses.

The second dependence Zоost1 is nonlinearly increasing starting from a minimal value of radiation threshold sufficient for the manifestation of the first irreversible changes in biological products of vegetable and animal origin.

Acceptable level of expenditures for losses of animal and poultry products because of changed fodder characteristics is also determined in the process of specific experimental work.

They also model similar cost dependences of economic expenditures for electric energy for fodder transportation Ztran1, as well as for their radiation Zobluc1, on the radiation dose value.

The third dependence Ztran1is a constant value at permanent velocity of movement of the conveyor operating element and at constant mass flow of products, changing in value proportionally to the velocity of movement of the conveyor operating element and the product mass.

The fourth dependence Zobluc1 is linearly increasing with the radiation dose Роbl growth.

The obtained four expenditure functions are summed up in the range of variation of artificially formed signal of a radiation dose to determine the minimum value of this target function (the criterion of optimization by the minimal sum of the specified expenditures) ZΣ1 = Zprod1 + Zоst1 + Zоbluc1 + Ztran1. Thus, precise, economically optimal and energy-saving disinfection of each product (its whole mass) is carried out.

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