Countries Progress in Solar PV in Support of NDC Implementation and Contribution to Achieving SDG7

Countries Progress in Solar PV in Support of NDC Implementation and Contribution to Achieving SDG7

Dereje Azemraw Senshaw (Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), South Korea) and Alexander Edwards (Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), South Korea)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 29
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-8559-6.ch001

Abstract

This case study examines the progress being made by 12 least developed countries (LDCs) in their effort to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 7 (SDG7) – access to clean and sustainable energy for all. Focusing on solar photovoltaics (PV), the authors look at what can be done to further the spread of renewable energy, and the role various actors have to playing in helping these countries to meet SDG7. Furthermore, with countries on the cusp of submitting their revised contributions under the Paris Agreement, they look at the role solar PV can play in helping LDCs to participate in taking action against climate change. After outlining the current policy landscape, and efforts being made within these countries, they look at the obstacles, opportunities, and the role of solar PV going forward. They also look at the steps that policymakers, both national and international, can take to encourage the rapid uptake of renewable energy in developing nations.
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Setting The Stage

For this study, as noted above, 12 LDCs from Africa, South-East Asia, and the Pacific were analysed in terms of their progress regarding the installation of solar PV, the accompanying policy landscape, and capacity building that has taken place. These countries are Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Kiribati, Lao PDR, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda, and Vanuatu.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC): Under the Paris Agreement, each party must prepare, communicate, and maintain successive nationally determined contributions. These essentially act as self-determined goals for how a country will contribute to achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement, and as noted, are updated and revised over time.

Energy Access: The term used to measure what percentage of a group or population has access to electricity.

PV Capacity: The total amount of installed solar PV generation capability a country possesses.

Proliferation of Renewable Energy: This refers to the rapid uptake, and mainstream diffusion of renewable energy.

Sustainable Development Goals: Set of objectives developed by the United Nations aimed at outlining the key challenges to a better and sustainable future for all, including climate change, poverty, hunger, and many more. There are 17 total overarching goals, each with multiple sub-targets. These form part of the UN “Agenda 2030” which aims to transform our world by the year 2030.

PV Generation: Different from capacity in that it refers to the actual amount of power generated, rather than the potential amount implied by capacity.

PV Module: The term commonly used to refer to a solar panel, many of which are required to make a solar PV array, or plant.

Power Purchase Agreement (PPA): An agreement where a government consents to purchasing a set amount of power in advance. Used to reduce the risk of developing new power plants by guaranteeing revenue.

Intermittent Generation: One of the core challenges of renewable energy, the fact that the supply is not constant (for example night and day/clouds with solar PV, the fact that certain days/seasons have stronger wind). As supply is not constant, it is vital to think of a way to ensure that this does not interfere with a constant supply of energy to the grid.

Feed-in-Tariff (FiT): FiTs are policy instruments which promote the use of renewable energy by paying individuals or organizations generating renewable energy a fixed price for each unit they generate.

Capacity Building: Improving the ability of governments, organizations, and individuals to solve problems and function effectively.

Solar Irradiance: Refers to the energy per unit area received by the sun. On a more practical level, the higher the level of solar irradiance in an area, the greater the potential for solar power.

Levelized Cost of Electricity: The total cost to build and operate a power generation point over its lifetime divided by its lifetime output. Can be thought of as a way to compare the price of generating one unit of energy on a consistent basis. Useful for comparing various methods of generation.

Off-Grid (PV/Energy): The grid may be thought of as a network of supply lines, able to carry energy to anywhere connected to it. Locations that are off-grid, are not reachable using traditional energy generation, and must rely on local generation for energy, or gain access to the grid.

Project Tenders: Refers to the process where contracts for large projects are opened up to bids which must be submitted by a certain deadline.

Development Bank: Financial Institutions which provide risk capital and finance for development projects. These are typically split into national and multilateral (internationally established and following international law).

Solar PV: The most common form of solar energy today, solar PV or Photovoltaics, is when sunlight is converted directly into electricity, as opposed to other systems which focus the sun's energy to power traditional methods of generation such as steam turbines.

Kilowattpeak (kWp): In basic terms, a unit of measurement for the power of your PV installation/plant. The power a plant or panel would generate under standard conditions (a defined amount of incoming sunlight).

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