COVID-19's Impact on the Design of Multiple/Single-Subject Bilingual Teaching Authorization in California

COVID-19's Impact on the Design of Multiple/Single-Subject Bilingual Teaching Authorization in California

Clara Amador-Lankster
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-6952-8.ch003
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This chapter will investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the design and structure of a newly developed multiple single (MS) and single subject (SS) teaching credential with bilingual authorization program in California. A review of recent changes in California's education policy regarding bilingual/dual language education will be presented as context for the discussion on the design of program coursework with embedded bilingual field experiences and culminating in bilingual clinical practice. Impact of COVID-19 will be analyzed from the perspective of design features with implementation provisions and program variations for a bilingual delivery of instruction virtually in the context of bilingual clinical practice. Final assessment of professional teaching performance will be completed by the California Teaching Performance Assessment (CalTPA 3.0) in a bilingual delivery setting. Future research considerations will be discussed for bilingual virtual teacher preparation.
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Bilingual/Dual Language Education

Bilingual/Dual Language Education in California Before COVID-19

Bilingual Education has been offered in California public schools for decades given the number of language minority students in TK-12 classrooms. Numbers of English learners have fluctuated from 1.6 million to our current number of 1.4 million students attending school. In order to meet the needs of emerging and developing bilinguals, the state provided traditional Bilingual Education for decades until the passage of Proposition 227 in 1998. This proposition mandated that instruction be delivered predominantly in English with the resulting consequence of eliminating Bilingual education programs as they were implemented (Gandara & Hopkins, 2010).

The implementation of Proposition 227 for almost two decades resulted in the implementation of Structured English Immersion (SEI) where there was no provision for instruction in languages other than English, resulting in the closure of many local bilingual programs and reassignment and miss-assignments of bilingual teachers. Furthermore, IHEs were not able to maintain their Bilingual Teacher Education Programs due to a sustained drop in enrollment and a lack of demand from LEAs for bilingual teachers. Many IHEs closed their Bilingual Teacher Preparation Programs. Currently, California has 30 IHEs offering Bilingual Authorization Preparation Programs as opposed to 80 institutions preparing teachers for Multiple and Single Subject Credentials (Carver-Thomas & Darling-Hammond, 2017). We are confronted with a serious bilingual teacher shortage to staff the multiple multilingual/bilingual programs offered as a result of Proposition 58 (2016) and a gap in teacher preparation since many IHEs need to establish new teacher preparation programs or re-establish former programs. Currently, there are Bilingual Authorization programs offered by California State University (51), University of California (12), Private IHEs (11), and LEAs (4). The three largest programs are Spanish (35), Mandarin (11) and Korean (6) offered across the state, followed by other programs offered in American Sign Language, Arabic, Armenian, Chinese (Cantonese), Farsi, Filipino/Tagalog, French, German, Hmong, Japanese, Khmer, Portuguese, Punjabi, Russian and Vietnamese (Commission on Teacher Credentialing, 2019)

In November 2016, the passage of Proposition 58 removed all restrictions on bilingual programs for English Learners by amending and removing key components of Proposition 227.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Program Design: Organization of curricular mapping, sequential experiences and program outcomes for candidates who complete a designated program of professional preparation.

Bilingual Education: This is an educational model anchored in teaching and learning in two languages for students who belong to language minority groups in order to develop a high level of proficiency in English and varying levels of proficiency in native language.

Virtual Learning: Ability to respond, express, represent and engage with a teacher and other learners in a virtual classroom environment synchronously.

Dual Language Education: This is an educational model anchored in teaching and learning in two languages for students who belong to language minority and language majority groups in order to develop bilingualism and biliteracy for all.

Clinical Practice: Trajectory of immersive professional experiences in the field of teaching and learning where candidates are placed in classroom settings to learn how to plan, teach, assess and modify instruction in response to student needs.

Field Experiences: Opportunities to observe, assess, co-participate, co-teach as applied practice in teaching and learning with students onsite or virtual learning environments.

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