Creativity as a Driver of Tourism Growth

Creativity as a Driver of Tourism Growth

Ewa Wszendybył-Skulska (Jagiellonian University, Poland)
Copyright: © 2017 |Pages: 24
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2016-0.ch015
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Abstract

The chapter discusses the role of creativity in the development of tourism. Given the different approach to measuring the level of tourism development in regions and creativity, the study included two measures of each of these factors. Therefore, creativity is seen through the prism of the dimension of human capital by the European Science Foundation - European Social Survey and Global Creativity Index. In contrast, the development of tourism - through the number of overnight stays of residents and Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index. The aim of the chapter is to present and analyse the issues related to creativity in the development of tourism, with particular emphasis on creativity stimulators and analysis of the relationship between creativity and competitiveness of tourism in Europe as well as of the number of overnight stays of residents.
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Introduction

Tourism is one of the most important and fastest growing sectors of the world economy. The World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) estimates that the tourism sector now accounts for 9.5% of global GDP, a total of US$ 7 trillion, and 5.4% of world exports. It is important to encourage businesses to develop the tourism sector as the tourism industry continues to play a key role as a driver of growth and job creation, growing at 4% in 2014 and providing 266 million jobs, directly and indirectly. This means that the industry now accounts for one in 11 jobs on the planet, a number that could even rise to one in 10 jobs by 2022, according to the WTTC (Crotti & Misrahi, 2015).

The development of the tourism sector is affected by many factors, inter alia (Carvalho & Costa, 2011):

  • Globalization which has led to deregulation and increase in competitiveness in the tourism sector. Currently, the number of tourists increases;

  • The profile of tourist that has changed. Tourists are becoming less and less interested in traditional tourist product that is accordant to the 3S principle (sun, sea, sand) and increasingly expect a product which will provide them with the 3E principle instead (entertainment, excitement, education);

  • Sustainable development which is necessary to gain competitive advantage makes tourist entities be managed according to the three basic dimensions: economic, social and environmental.

What has always determined the development of global tourism is innovations. Means of transport and development of these are worth mentioning. Invention of railway or aircraft has led to an increase in tourism thanks to, among others, determined shortening of travel time.

Taking into account various definitions of innovation one may say that innovation in the tourism sector may refer to: new services, new segments of market and consumers, new channels of distribution, new promotional tools and marketing strategies, new applications and new infrastructure (Peters & Pikkemaat, 2006). However, although many definitions of innovation focus on new products and technologies, everything is based on an innovative approach to the existing assumptions and ways of thinking (Moscardo, 2008). The concept of innovation can therefore be defined as an ability to introduce an innovation and to treat it as a feature, competences of the entities of the tourism sector (Bednarczyk, 2014). This feature, however, is subject to the precondition, that is creativity – having an ability to critical judgment of the situation, action, creative thinking and ability to suggest a change (Boni, 2011).

Tourism is a major economic sector where there are rapid changes in customers’ trends and preferences, which makes it necessary to implement new innovative solutions to obtain measurable benefits, that is among others: reduction of costs, increase in operational efficiency and level of profits, ease in meeting changing needs of consumers, increased flexibility in adjusting supply to the changing profile of demand, helping operators to differentiate themselves from others in the market by communicating their advantages (Carvalho & Costa, 2011). According to Hjalager, increasing demands of consumers, inhabitants and authorities of regions provoke taking innovative actions in the tourism sector (Hjalager, 1997).

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