Criminology as a Discipline in Modern Greece: Teaching, Research and Profession

Criminology as a Discipline in Modern Greece: Teaching, Research and Profession

Christina Zarafonitou (Panteion University, Greece)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-872-7.ch004
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Abstract

Although in Greece the publication of books of criminological interest began in the last decades of the 19th century, the subject of Criminology was introduced by Professor Konstantinos Gardikas first at Athens University in 1930 and, then, at Panteios School of Social and Political Sciences in 1932. Some years later, in 1938, the chair of Criminology and Penology was established at the University of Athens. The involvement of K. Gardikas along with three other European experts in the foundation of Interpol in 1923, also resulted in the creation of an important Branch of Criminological Services with many specialized research laboratories which is evolving constantly incorporating all of modern technologies. In our days, Criminology is taught mainly at the schools of Law and of Sociology. In spite of the absence of an autonomous Department of Criminology in the Greek universities, there is a special Section of Criminology in the Department of Sociology at Panteion University. In-depth concentration is obtained in the context of the postgraduate programs as well as through those for the Ph.D. Criminological research is conducted in the universities where some criminological laboratories or centers operate as well as in the National Center of Social Research and the Center of Safety Studies of the Ministry of the Interior, to name a few. The professional domain of criminologists has extended in recent years (administration of penal justice, prisons, agencies for drug addicts or juveniles and immigrants, prevention services). In spite of this, the job market is relatively limited in comparison to the needs of society.
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The Teaching Of Criminology

Although in Greece the publication of books of criminological interest began in the last decades of the 19th century, (Spinellis, 2005, p. 32) 2, the teaching of Criminology 3 began with Professor Konstantinos Gardikas (1896-1984), first at Athens University in 1930 and, immediately after, at Panteios School of Political Sciences, in 1932 (Spinellis, 1997, p. 77) where an independent Chair of Criminology and Forensic Sciences was created. Professor Gardikas was the first Professor appointed to teach this discipline (Farsedakis, 2008b). Some years later, in 1938, the chair of Criminology and Penology was established at the University of Athens and K. Gardikas was also the first who assumed its responsibility (Courakis, 2000).

It is noteworthy that Criminology was included in the first program of Panteios School of Political Sciences (3 July 1930), which was organized in five branches: (a) Political Sciences (b) Law (c) Economic Sciences (d) Sociology, Criminology and Penology and (e) Journalism, Geography and Philosophy (Twenty five years seniority- Eikosipentaetiris, 1957:15). Teaching at an academic level evolved through different stages before reaching its present form whose major characteristics are the absence of an independent University Department of Criminology and its expansion, beyond the Schools of Law and Sociology, into different Social Sciences as well as in the Police Academy which will be noted below.

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    Panteion University

The only independent Section of Criminology is in the Department of Sociology at Panteion University, at which a post-graduate program also exists. The development of Criminology at Panteion University 4 set forth important events, examples of which are noted below, which proved to be turning points in the history of the science in modern Greece:

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