Crisis Management Challenges

Crisis Management Challenges

DOI: 10.4018/979-8-3693-1658-0.ch002
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The world is facing unprecedented crises and emergencies on a global scale. They are distinguished by the inclusion of new elements and characteristics in them, their extreme intensity, they are complex and complicated, and they affect many sectors of social development. Politics and diplomacy are often silent or unable to achieve the required result. Civilians, military personnel, women, children completely senselessly lose their lives for impossible and strange causes or for those that should unite and not divide people, families, society. The international community and world leaders must take immediate measures to reduce military conflicts and crises, poverty and inequality, hunger and disease, violence against women and children. This chapter examines Crisis (essence, content, views), traditional and modern forms of crises, unprecedented crises and emergencies on a global scale, and the crisis management concept framework.
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The chapter begins with an etymological review of the concept of crisis and the concept of crises, it will continue with various alternative definitions of crisis that exist in theory and practice, the NATO definitions of crisis, related and synonymous concepts of the concept of “crisis”, levels of crisis and crisis development. In this connection, the concept of human security will also be briefly discussed.

Multiple aspects and types of crises will be addressed as follows:

  • military conflicts and military actions;

  • crises caused by crimes against humanity;

  • crises caused by internal organized crime;

  • crises caused by transnational organized crime;

  • natural crises and natural disasters;

  • economic crises and poverty;

  • social crises;

  • political and governance crises;

  • technological crises;

  • business crises;

  • crises in education and science;

  • cultural crises.

The global crises we cannot ignore are considered, such as:

  • 1.

    Armed conflicts.

  • 2.

    The COVID-19 pandemic.

  • 3.

    Poverty and inequality.

  • 4.

    Unprecedented hunger.

  • 5.

    Refugee waves.

  • 6.

    Child Marriage/Child Labor and Trafficking.

  • 7.

    Discrimination on the basis of gender.

  • 8.

    Climate change.

  • 9.


  • 10.

    Lack of access to healthcare and education.

  • 11.

    Political turmoil.

  • 12.

    Selling weapons.

  • 13.

    The inaction of world leaders.

  • 14.

    Hate speech on social media.

In conclusion, the framework of the crisis management concept is outlined.



A number of alternative definitions of crisis exist in theory and practice. In the most general sense, the term “crisis” implies an unwanted and unexpected situation that brings latent harm to individuals, organizations or society. The crisis is (Canyon, 2020):

  • a serious threat to the basic structures or fundamental values and norms of a system which, in conditions of time pressure and highly uncertain circumstances, necessitates the making of vital decisions;

  • a low-probability, high-impact event that threatens the viability of the organization and is characterized by uncertainty about cause, effect and means of resolution, and a belief that decisions must be made quickly;

  • a damaging event or series of events that indicate conditions have arisen that exceed the organization's ability to cope with the task, generating consequences that may affect a significant part of the organization;

  • a sudden or developing change that leads to an urgent problem that needs to be addressed immediately;

  • any event that could seriously harm the people, reputation or financial status of an organization;

  • instability with a marked possibility of an undesirable result;

  • any situation that poses a risk of escalation and increased intensity, interference with the normal activity of the organization, jeopardizing the positive image and damaging an organization.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Terrorism: Criminal acts intended to cause a state of terror in the general public, in groups of persons or in specific individuals, for purposes that cannot be justified, for reasons of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or other nature.

Organizational Crisis: A threat to the viability of the organization and it is experienced as a personally and socially threatening situation.

Environmental Damage: A reduction in the capacity of the environment and the inability to meet the social and environmental goals and needs of society.

International Crisis: A sequence of interactions between the rulers of two or more sovereign states in a situation of severe conflict with a high degree of probability of the outbreak of war.

Natural Crises: Are associated with environmental degradation, including the depletion and pollution of air, soil and water resources, the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction of wildlife. They are defined as harmful and unwanted change related to the disturbance or destruction of the environment.

Economic Crises: Closely related to recession in the economy, which is a downward trend in the economic cycle characterized by a decline in production, employment, a decline in household income, as well as a sharp change in the micro- and macroeconomic indicators of the economy.

Technological Crisis: A crisis caused by the human application of science and technology. Technological accidents inevitably occur when technology becomes complex, with its inherent interconnected elements. Technology crises occur as a result of IT system failures, damaged software, faulty hardware or malicious cyber-attacks, and usually affect access to critical resources such as data or the ability of employees from different sectors to work effectively.

Weapons of Mass Destruction: Weapon or device that is intended or has the capability to cause death or serious bodily harm to a significant number of people through the release, spread or impact of a biological agent, toxic or poisonous chemicals, radiation, or radioactivity.

Business Crisis: A serious difficulty or danger to the business, such as: interruption of the supply of raw materials; limiting access to buildings, machines, facilities; limiting access to finance; theft or vandalism; loss of key personnel; disease outbreak; a large-scale occupational accident; crises affecting reputation, etc.

Cultural Crises: Related to crises with the construction, preservation or change in the values, lifestyle, traditions, customs, creative efforts and achievements of the nation.

Educational Crises: Reflect the inability of the educational system to play its mediating role in caring for the preservation and transformation of world experience and knowledge. The main crises in education worldwide are related to access to education; the covered children in the education system; the quality of school education; the learning motivation; the quality of higher education; the quality and achievements of science; plagiarism and others.

Crisis: A serious threat to the basic structures or fundamental values and norms of a system which, in conditions of time pressure and highly uncertain circumstances, necessitates the making of vital decisions.

Organized Crime: A complex of highly centralized groups created to carry out illegal activities. Such groups engage in theft, fraud, robbery, kidnapping for ransom and demanding “protection” payments.

Humanitarian Crisis: A single event or series of events that is threatening to the health, safety or well-being of a community or large group of people. This can be an internal or external conflict that usually occurs over a large area.

Crisis Situation: Arose as a result of the action of destructive or aggressive forces during disasters, accidents and catastrophes, epidemics or other events.

Political and Governmental Crises: Associated with election of a political apparatus, political struggles, governance through dictatorship and repression, information blackout, media scandals and misinformation, protests, judicial crises, dependence of the three types of power (legislative, executive and judicial), etc.

Emergency Situation: A state, a situation that occurs outside of the established order or program, and is unusual, special and exceptional in its nature.

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