Critical Factors for Technology Transfer in Cattle Production: A Review

Critical Factors for Technology Transfer in Cattle Production: A Review

Víctor Fernando Torres-Aburto (Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico), Dinora Vázquez-Luna (Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico), Belisario Domínguez Mancera (Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico) and Valentín Efrén Espinosa Ortiz (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9837-4.ch021

Abstract

Cattle production plays an important role in economic development and food security. Developed countries have achieved optimum levels of production through the implementation of technologies that have allowed efficient use of resources. In contrast, in the developing countries, despite their suitable means of production, such as large tracts of land dedicated to livestock, and programs of nutrition and health, farmers have not widely adopted reproductive and productive supplementation. Therefore, this chapter explores the main critical factors that limit the transfer of technology in bovine production systems, analyzing the interaction between the models, actors, and means of production.
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Introduction

Technology transfer is an instrument that contributes to economic growth of countries, and is defined as a set of skills, innovations, and practices that are transferred from the places of their creation to places where they are used daily. On the other hand, adoption refers to technologies that producers incorporate into a production process (Adejuwon, Ilori, & Taiwo, 2016; Zhang, Guo, Zhang, Han, & Zhang, 2016).

Low production efficiency is one of the principal challenges of livestock production units in developing countries. This decline results in producers’ low incomes, and limits adoption and use of technologies (Senra, 2011; Zhang et al., 2016). Insufficient implementation of technologies related to improving breeding, nutrition, and health (Wade, 2016) affects reproductive performance of the herd, leading to calving interval of 507 days and a decrease in milk production of 7,031 kg/ year (Inchaisri, Jorritsma, Vos, Van der Weijden, & Hogeveen, 2010). In this way, economic performance of cattle farms is affected by up to 90%, occasioning reduced profits and increased production costs (Alves et al., 2015; Derks, Hogeveen, Kooistra, van Werven, & Tauer, 2014).

Technology transfer has played a key role in developed countries. Through its continuous use, it has been possible to improve productive processes, increasing milk and meat production, and achieve long-term economic progress (LeBel, 2008; Suárez, Aranda, & Palma, 2012). The inclusion of strategies and policies supported by science, technology, and innovation has allowed competitiveness in domestic and international markets (Şener & Sarıdoğan, 2011). An example of this is the dairy industry in the United States, which achieved a structural change in their productive system through the adoption of new technologies and management practices (Khanal, Gillespie, & MacDonald, 2010). Therefore, the objective of this review was to identify the main critical factors that limit the transfer of technology in bovine production systems, analyzing the interaction between models, actors, and the means of production.

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