Crop Improvement Technology With Lawsonia inermis

Crop Improvement Technology With Lawsonia inermis

Shweta Saxena, Sweta Prakash, Sadhna Panday
Copyright: © 2022 |Pages: 11
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-9851-1.ch010
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Lawsonia inermis L. (family Lythraceae), often known as henna, is a dye-producing plant cultivated in various parts of the world for cosmetic purposes. Since time immemorial, leaf powder made from this little tree has been used to beautify skin, hair, fingernails, leather, silk, and wool. The plant's leaf, which contains an active dye (red orange pigment), lawsone, is widely employed in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries (2-hydroxy-1,4 naphthoquinone). Lawsone, an essential secondary metabolite, accumulates in the plant's aerial parts, with the highest concentration of 1.0–1.4% in the young leaf petiole. Analgesic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immune stimulant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-dermatophytic, protein glycation inhibition, anti-sickling, antioxidant, anti-fertility, tuberculostatic, wound healing, anticomplimentary, and anticancer properties have all been reported for the plant. Henna is currently recognised as a valuable source of unique natural ingredients for the creation of medications and commercial products for a variety of ailments.
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Name Of The Crop With Botanical Name And Family

Lawsonia inermis L. – Lythraceae

Syn. Lawsonia alba Lamk.

Family: Lythraceae

Hindi: Mehndi, Henna

Sanskrit: Medhini, Madyantika

English: Egyptian proverb, Cypress shrub

Fruiting: Sep- Nov


Growing Areas In The Country

Lawsonia inermis is found in Asia, Australia, South-East Africa, the Middle East, and Arab and in many other parts of the world. In India, it is cultivated in South Indian states such as Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh. It is traditionally used in countries like Algeria, India, Saudi- Arabia, Pakistan and Bangladesh, Israel, Somalia, Tunisia, and Turkey. It grows mostly in 35-45 degrees centigrade. Below 5-degree centigrade kills mehndi. A glabrous, much-branched, deciduous shrub with tetragonous branches often ending in spines; leaves simple, opposite, entire, lanceolate, petioles very short or absent; flowers white or rose colored, fragrant, in large terminal pyramidal panicled cymes, stamens 8, in 4 pairs inserted on the calyx tube; fruits globose capsules, tipped with the style and supported by the persistent calyx, seeds numerous, smooth, pyramidal.


Climate And Soil

Distribution: Scarcely in dry deciduous forests, widely cultivated as a hedge plant. It can be grown on a wide variety of soil and climatic conditions. However, deep fine sandy is useful for henna cultivation. The plant thrives well under arid to tropical and warm temperate climatic conditions. It needs moderate rainfall of about 400 mm and a temperature of about 30-40°C during the active growth period during the rainy season and hot, dry, and open weather for a good harvest of quality leaves.

The soil required for henna is a bit different than other soil types for cultivation. The soil must not hold too much moisture. If the soil has more moisture, the leaves will also carry moisture. Hence, tannin production will be low. Soils that are semi-dry can be best used for the cultivation of henna. Too dry soils will not support the good growth of the plants. The ph of the soil must be balanced. Too acidic or alkaline soils are not good for the growth of henna plants. Organic matter must be present in sufficient quantities in the soil. The soil must be well aerated. Well-drained soils are preferred for the cultivation of henna.


Medicinal Properties And Use Of Different Parts Of Plants For Specific Purposes

The roots are bitter, diuretic, and useful in burning sensation, leprosy, skin diseases, and premature graying of hair. The leaves are bitter, astringent, refrigerant, vulnerary, expectorant, anti-inflammatory, constipating, liver tonic, and febrifuge. They are useful in wounds, ulcers, cough, bronchitis vitiated conditions of Kapha and pitta, burning sensation, inflammations, diarrhea, dysentery, leprosy, leucoderma, scabies, boil, anemia, fever, ophthalmia, falling of hair, graying of hair and jaundice. The flowers are intellect promoting, cardiotonic, refrigerant, febrifuge, and tonic. They are useful in burning sensation, cardiopathy, insomnia, and fever. The seeds are antipyretic, constipating useful in intermittent fevers, insanity, diarrhea, dysentery, and gastropathy.

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