Crop Waste to Livestock Feed and Livestock Waste to Soil

Crop Waste to Livestock Feed and Livestock Waste to Soil

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7934-2.ch004

Abstract

Significant waste but edible biomass and fuel that can be utilized as raw materials are available locally. With internal efficiencies of recycling of nutrients in an integrated farming system and appropriate technologies, such waste can be optimized for the production of livestock feed and potting soil. These items are pivotal to the productivity and efficiency of sustainable farming. Once the initial set up cost can be laid out, the operation can be self-propelled to larger scales with economic benefits at the farm level as well as at the national level. There has been the argument that livestock feed requires large acreages under grain production which is not feasible in small economies of scale and in the context of small island developing states. The paradox is that there is high cost to produce waste which is not utilized and is a loss to the enterprise.
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Issues And Opportunities Of Farm Waste

Alexander, et al (2017), noted that there are losses at every stage in the food system which can otherwise by used to meet nutritional requirements of a growing global population, but that is beyond the scope of this book. However, such waste can be otherwise returned to the farm to enhance productivity. They estimated the magnitude of such waste as to the following extent:

  • The proportion of global agricultural dry biomass consumed as food is just 6% (9.0% for energy and 7.6% for protein), and 24.8% of harvest biomass (31.9% for energy and 27.8% for protein)

  • The highest rates of loss are associated with livestock production

  • Losses of harvested crops at 44.0% of crop dry matter (36.9% of energy and 50.1% of protein) lost prior to human consumption

  • If human overconsumption, defined as food consumption in excess of nutritional requirements, is included as an additional inefficiency, 48.4% of harvested crops were found to be lost (53.2% of energy and 42.3% of protein).

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