Crowdsourcing as a Tool for Improving Learning in Tertiary Institutions in Developing Countries

Crowdsourcing as a Tool for Improving Learning in Tertiary Institutions in Developing Countries

Indo Benna (Mohammed AlMana College of Health Sciences, Saudi Arabia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3952-0.ch009

Abstract

Higher education in many developing countries faces the triple challenges of inadequate funding, need to improve quality of learning outcomes, and the pressure to increase quality of graduates. Crowdsourcing offers opportunity for institutions to face these problems with little resource expenditure. The chapter describes/analyzes how crowdsourcing can be applied in curriculum and teaching material development activities through collaborative efforts of higher education institutions from different parts of the world to develop suitable curriculum for teaching English for specific purpose. The chapter analyzes the process and the evaluates the outcome of the crowdsourcing tool and suggests that its application can keep higher education institutions in developing countries in forefront of education and research innovation, and prepares members in these institutions for innovative problem solving and for the challenges of the online world.
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2. Growth Of Esp And Crowdsourcing In The Middle East

English for Specific Purposes (ESP) and crowdsourcing are emerging strategies that are increasingly being used to achieve desired policy goals, including higher education. Higher education is a knowledge-based industry that needs an inflow of ideas and innovative ways of doing things - including those provided by ESP and crowdsourcing- in order to increase its own efficiency and productivity. In this section, we shall discuss the growth of ESP first and then explore the role of crowdsourcing on higher education in the Middle East.

  • ESP and Its Growth: By way of providing a background to the growth of ESP, this section briefly explores its form, approach and rationale using the available literature and then identifies the major growth factors.

The primary focus of ESP focuses on language context rather than on teaching syntax and language structures (Lorenzo, 2005). In this sense, ESP is considered different from English language teaching in that it focuses on outcome rather than language syntax (Dudley-Evans and St. John 1998). Because of the diversity of global socio-economic activities Belcher (2004) observes that ESP increasingly encompasses a diversifying and expanding range of purposes. Regarding its teaching method, ESP bases all decisions with respect to content and method on the learner’s reason for learning (Hutchinson and Waters 1987).

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