Current Scenario of Youth Entrepreneurship in India

Current Scenario of Youth Entrepreneurship in India

Neeta Baporikar (Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia & University of Pune, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2255-3.ch261
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Abstract

Entrepreneurship is gaining added attention in the present economic predicament. Entrepreneurship is not only a key facet of economic dynamism but also an imperative for economic growth, productivity, innovation and employment. Hence, many countries have made entrepreneurship especially youth entrepreneurship an explicit policy priority. As globalisation reshapes the international economic landscape and technological change creates greater uncertainty in the world economy, youth entrepreneurship is believed to offer new ways to meet economic, social and environmental challenges. Entrepreneurship objectives and policies differ among countries, due to diverse perspectives and policy needs yet, youth unemployment is a cause of concern for many. Through grounded theory approach and based on review of policy documents and secondary data, the chapter aims to provide contemporary perspective on youth entrepreneurship with reference to India and hopes to enhance and bring improvement in the policies as ultimately, policy making must be guided, as far as possible, by evidence and facts.
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Background

In spite of the increasing recognition of entrepreneurship as a source of job creation, regional development, and economic dynamism in a rapidly globalizing world, there has been no systematic attempt to look at it from a youth angle. According to Holland’s (1997) theory, people are attracted to work environments that conform to their personality orientation. Chell (2008) suggests that personality traits of entrepreneurs may be important for entrepreneurship. Shepherd et al., (2009) posit that the personality traits of the entrepreneur may explain entrepreneurial failure. According to Splaver (1977) it is important for you to have a good understanding of yourself and your personality, if you are to make intelligent career plans. (Ciavarella et al., 2004; Zhao et al., 2010) points out that personality trait have a direct effect on entrepreneurial performance measures. Personality traits of entrepreneurs may have a different effect on firm performance in case the firms are innovative (Zhao et al., 2010). Penrose (1959) emphasized that carrying out similar tasks has important implications for cognitive processes of human beings. Simon’s (1947) gave the idea of bounded rationality which refers to human limitation to process information. Under the assumption of bounded rationality, therefore, past experience influences the processing of incoming information. Witt (2000) explained that events in the environment are only perceived and interpreted along some specific associative lines. In this sense, a cognitive frame is a schematic representation of an individual’s perception of the environment built through prior learning and adaptation. Gardner (1983) argues that intelligence refers to both the personal decisions and potentials of individuals. This potential comes out or develops according to cultural environment, values and opportunities. Baum et al. (2001) reported a positive relationship between practical intelligence and entrepreneurial processes and entrepreneurial characteristics, which proposes that practical intelligence is one of the strengths underlying high performance enterprises.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Stakeholder: A person with an interest or concern in something, especially a business. Stakeholder is a member of a type of organization or system in which as a member or participant seen as having an interest in its success.

Process: A natural phenomenon marked by gradual changes that lead toward a particular result, a natural progressively continuing operation or development marked by a series of gradual changes that succeed one another in a relatively fixed way and lead toward a particular result or end.

Risk: To take a chance on a possible course of action to achieve a desired result.

Policies: The science and art of employing, a careful plan or method, the art of devising or employing plans or stratagems toward a goal, an adaptation or complex of adaptations (as of behaviour, metabolism, or structure) that serves or appears to serve an important function in achieving evolutionary success.

Opportunity: A favorable combination of circumstances, time, and place.

Management: The act or activity or process of looking after and making decisions about something.

Government: The organization, machinery, or agency through which a political unit exercises authority and performs functions and which is usually classified according to the distribution of power within it. It is a political system by which a body of people is administered and regulated.

Critical Success Factors (CSFs): CSF is greatest possible important circumstance, fact, or influence that contributes for the correct or desired result of an attempt and it is one of the parts that make up a whole or the one that actively contributes to the production of a result or success or failure of something that is aimed to be achieved or attained.

Models: An exact representation of something in greatly reduced size for better understanding and adoption if found suitable.

Knowledge: The fact or condition of knowing something with familiarity gained through experience or association, acquaintance with or understanding of a science, art, or technique, the range of one’s information or understanding, the circumstance or condition of apprehending truth or fact through reasoning or the fact or condition of having information or of being learned.

Information Technology: The study or use of systems (especially computers and telecommunications) for storing, retrieving, and sending information.

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