Current Use and Attitude Towards Learning Management Systems (LMS) in Turkish Universities

Current Use and Attitude Towards Learning Management Systems (LMS) in Turkish Universities

Ulas Akkucuk (Bogazici University, Turkey) and Selen Balkaya (Bogazici University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-8970-9.ch018
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Abstract

Nowadays, online learning has become a phenomenon and many believe that e-learning can be the next revolutionary change in education. E-learning is a way of learning supported by information communication technologies (ICT) that makes it possible to deliver education and training to anyone, anytime and anywhere. Learning management system (LMS) applications are software applications for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting and delivery of e-learning courses and programs. With the advancement of technology in general, LMS applications are increasingly becoming the preferred method for learning among students, teachers and others. LMS applications enable university students and teachers to benefit from today's technology in their learning process. LMS applications will play a major role in education, and technology will get stronger with effective usage of LMS applications. Therefore, defining the current situation in Turkey about LMS applications usage and factors affecting adoption of LMS applications are important for future LMS design and management.
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Literature Review

Many theoretical models have been used to explain users’ acceptance/adoption of the information system (IS)/information technology (IT). Among these theoretical models, the technology acceptance model (TAM), proposed by Davis (1989) and Davis et al. (1989), is one of the most widely accepted and applied models in a variety of domains that include related IS and IT acceptance/adoption studies (Chau, 1996; Venkatesh, 2006).

Two prominent theories drawn from Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) of Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) were used to explain faculty members’ adoption, attitude and use of LMS in the institutions. Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) indicated in Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) that behavioral intentions are the immediate antecedents to behavior. (Alghamdi & Bayaga, 2016)

TRA explains the decision process of a human being to perform a new behavior, based on attitudes - subjective norms and behavioral intention. Individual behavior is driven by behavioral intentions where behavioral intentions are a function of an individual's attitude toward the behavior and subjective norms surrounding the performance of the behavior. (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) Attitude is positive or negative feelings about performing the behavior.

In agreement with TRA, Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) proposed by Ajzen (1985; 2005) further explains how human action is guided and added a third variable to cater for deliberate behaviors. It postulates that an individual’s intention to perform a behavior depends on the attitude towards performing the behavior (behavioral), the subjective norm (normative), and the perceived control of that behavior. (Alghamdi & Bayaga, 2016). In the light of previous technology adoption research and behavioral models TAM helps us testing the how attitudes of instructors effect their intention to use LMSs. LMSs have many tools that changes instructors’ way of doing different tasks in faculties such as communicating with students and other faculty members, collecting assignments, assessing students. Instructors approach to task related LMS features are expected to affect their attitude towards use as well.

Technology Acceptance Model provides a theoretical framework to explain user acceptance of information technology products/systems. Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, 1989) suggests that when users are presented with a new technology, a number of factors influence their decision about how and when they will use it. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1989) consists of Perceived Usefulness (PU), Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU), attitude toward using, behavioral intention to use, and actual system use.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Higher Education: Universities offering undergraduate and postgraduate programs.

Turkey: A country of more than 82 million people located in Southeast Europe.

Blackboard: A popular LMS used in universities.

LMS: Learning management systems, a set of tools intended to use the Internet as a mechanism of distributing course materials, testing and quizzes and conducting online forums among the students.

TAM: Technology Acceptance Model.

Online Education: Delivering courses via the Internet.

Moodle: A popular LMS used in universities.

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