Cyber Physical Internet

Cyber Physical Internet

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-7312-0.ch005
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Abstract

This chapter explores the concept of the Cyber Physical Internet (CPI) and discusses the design necessities of it. In addition, it provides the restrictions of the present networking concepts to satisfy these necessities. The structural design of protocol stack for CPI has an extra layer Cyber-Physical Layer (CY-PHY Layer) to offer a conceptual description of the properties and type of cyber physical information. To enable standard communication between heterogeneous systems, Cyber Physical System-Interconnection Protocol is used. This protocol is mainly designed for special CPSs, which require overall instruction and performance guarantee for cyber physical interaction. The main objective of this protocol is to offer CPSs heterogeneity at three different levels: function interoperability, policy regulation, and performance guarantee.
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Introduction

At the point when the web was initially presented, the motivation behind web was to inter-connect machines to impart the computerized information enormously. Then again when the embedded systems started, the target was to control system parts under continuous requirements through sensing devices usually at low to medium scales. Today, the advancement of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) (Koubâa & Andersson, 2009) gave rise to the paradigm of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS).

In the most recent two years, a progressive change has begun from stand-alone, independent embedded systems to cyber-physical systems (CPS). The units liable of this progressive change are Technical advancements in sensing, computing, and networking (especially profoundly embedded sensors and Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks (WSANs)). Combination of computation, networking, and physical dynamics make the Cyber-physical system in which embedded units are arranged to sense, observe and control the physical world (Xia, Ma,Dong, & Sun, 2008).

The integration of physical procedures with the processing is old enough. The Cyber Physical Systems which are in use today are more complicated and diminutive scale in size when compared to the predicted or foreseen Cyber Physical Systems without bounds. The enormous networking of embedded computing devices like sensors and actuators is origination of the progression (Xia et al., 2008).

The projected change that CPS will introduce with this progression is the way of interaction with the physical world as similar to the Internet which changed the way the people interact with each other. Network need to integrate the computing devices which are distributed geographically and physical elements and hence, network plays a major role to enable extraordinary or exceptional communications between the physical world and human beings. Additionally, it is clear that WSANs serve as a backbone of the network in different CPS (Xia et al., 2008).

The vision towards large-scale distributed computing systems (Koubâa & Andersson, 2009) is currently evolving to be a new topic for research and development, where computation and environment are integrated and no more differentiated. For this, there is a need to coordinate outside physical information and techniques with computations for purpose of dissemination and universal control of the surrounding environment. Actually, embedded computing systems are fundamentally reliant on their surroundings where they are installed through sensing physical courses of procedures (Koubâa & Andersson, 2009).

The new prerequisites of enormously organized embedded systems are successfully fulfilled by the traditional embedded systems as computing gets to be progressively incorporated into our environment. Alternatively, the universal organization is being provided by the Internet to enable the information sharing and recovery.

Nonetheless, Internet applications have been determined by the need to share the legitimate data on the huge scale (Koubâa & Andersson, 2009) gave the mapping between the physical environment and the coherent data has not been considered in the outline of those applications. Accordingly, the convergence of the Internet with embedded systems is an imperative point of reference for empowering huge scale distributed computing systems that are firmly coupled with their physical environment.

As an initial move towards this union the Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) based systems (Koubâa & Andersson, 2009) have empowered the idea of system of physical entities, which is generally referred as Internet-of-Things. RFID has been well-thought-out as the key engineering for Internet-of-Things (IoTs) (Koubâa & Andersson, 2009).

Alternatively, the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) standard has developed as an alternate option to networks of physical actions, which upholds the control and observing of physical occurrences in environment through sensing. Some different choices have considered the utilization of sensor-based cellular phones for observing regular things through cellular networks. These methodologies come into the idea of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), which are the systems installed in extensive land territories and normally comprise of extensive number of distributed computing devices firmly coupled with their physical environment.

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