Cyber-Physical Systems Framework for Smart Built-Environments

Cyber-Physical Systems Framework for Smart Built-Environments

Yaseen Srewil (Technische Universität Dresden, Germany) and Raimar J. Scherer (Technische Universität Dresden, Germany)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-4936-9.ch006
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Cyber-physical systems (CPS) can be seen as digitally-driven technological fusions of physical, spatial and virtual models. Thereby, the construction entities, locations and processes are tightly linked to the digital building models (BIM) using automated data capturing (ADC) solutions. This chapter focuses on the challenge of modelling a cyber–physical systems approach for constructing domains in order to effectively exploit the computation, control and communication capabilities. Pairing BIM and ADC technologies offers an adequate solution bridging the information gaps and promoting the collaboration among digital, spatial and physical construction entities. The results are cyber-physical objects (CPOs) at a level of “smartness” that provides enhancement of digital capabilities and the ability of context-awareness. These hybrid objects of digital equivalents and physical entities can be embedded in the construction and logistics processes in order to track progress and monitor the construction site activities and control flow close to real-time.
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The rapidly progressing in ICT and sensing technologies open up the opportunity to achieve a bi-directional coordination and integration between virtual information models and physical construction in real-time. These functionalities have been introduced as features of the recent appearing of the CPS term, which is about the intersection of the physical and the cyber world (Lee, 2015).

CPS was originally developed in computer science as the next wave of innovation in ICT enabling the new generation of “smart systems”. It has drawn great attention to academia, governments and industries due to its environmental and economic impact (NIST, 2013a). Beyond the embedded system, CPS is open, capable of multi-scale and designed as a network of interactive components more than standalone devices (Talcott, 2008; Lai, Ma, Chang, Chao, & Huang, 2011). Such smart systems encompass computing (virtual space) and physical components, seamlessly integrated and closely interacting to sense the changing state of the real world (NIST, 2013b). While CPS is still in its infancy, there are a few design principles, system architectures and prototypes -mainly in scientific works- for different application domains such as manufacturing, energy, transportation and civil infrastructure and medical systems (Sanislav & Miclea, 2012).

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