Cyber Physical Systems: A Review

Cyber Physical Systems: A Review

Siddhartha Khaitan (Iowa State University, USA) and James D. McCalley (Iowa State University, USA)
Copyright: © 2014 |Pages: 6
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-5202-6.ch052
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Background

A CPS is a “system of sub-systems” where heterogeneous sub-systems (e.g. cyber and physical) interact in a continuous manner. These sub-systems are functionally independent but operationally dependent on each other. Developing CPSs requires modeling the relationship between different sub-systems to effectively extract knowledge from underlying data, while ensuring quality of service and handling massive data (Gupta et al. 2008). Most CPSs have real-time constraints, and hence, it is important that they meet the demands of quality of service, while remaining secure from external attacks. These requirements make the development of CPSs challenging.

Several researchers have proposed approaches for development of CPSs. Martin et al. (2012) present design tools for translating high-level specification of CPS to actual implementation on physical devices. They formulate the specification of CPS in terms of motion description languages. This helps in bridging the gap between high-level specification and the actual implementation and breaking the control tasks into small-scale motion primitives which can be easily interpreted by the system.

Talcott (2008) develops an event-based semantics for cyber physical systems. The author classifies different events according to their characteristics e.g. punctual v/s durative and uses this semantics to provide a natural way to specify components of open systems in terms of interfaces and observable behavior. Roy et al. (2011) introduce a tool for synthesizing controllers for CPSs. This tool accepts a CPS represented in the form of automata and set of differential equations and produces a system controller that enforces the given specification up to an abstraction parameter.

Dabholkar et al. (2009) discuss a methodology for systematically specializing general-purpose middleware to meet the demands of cyber physical systems which are used in different application domains. Instead of focusing on source code-level details, they raise the level of abstraction to the features the middleware offers. This helps in specializing the general-purpose middleware to the needs of domain-specific CPS.

Balasubramanian et al. (2010) present a method for ensuring QoS in networked CPSs. For isolating an application developer from the complexities of lower-level programming and QoS mechanisms, they propose use of a middleware in the CPS.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Quality-of-Service (QoS): QoS refers to the ability of a system to meet the goals of ensuring high quality and utility of the end-product and ensure user satisfaction.

System of Sub-Systems: This refers to is a collection of dedicated systems that together offer better functionality and performance than merely the sum of the individual constituent systems.

Data Fusion: Data fusion refers to the process of integrating data obtained from multiple sources, which represent the same real-world object, into a consistent and meaningful representation framework.

Data Center: A data center is a facility where large computer systems are placed for storing data and enabling online access to the data.

Embedded System: An embedded system refers to a computing system which is designed for certain control functions within a larger system.

Cyber Physical System (CPS): Cyber Physical Systems refer to those systems which feature tight integration of computation with physical processes.

Resilience: The resilience of a CPS refers to its ability to quickly recover from a state of malfunction or security violation.

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