Cyberbullying: A Literature Review on Cross-Cultural Research in the Last Quarter

Cyberbullying: A Literature Review on Cross-Cultural Research in the Last Quarter

Mehmet Emirhan Kula
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-9187-1.ch027
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This chapter includes a literature review of the studies on cyberbullying in the last quarter century. In this direction, firstly, key concepts related to cyberbullying are explained in order to create a substructure for the understanding of the concept. Then, the concept of traditional bullying is explained within a conceptual evaluation. The concept of cyberbullying has been evaluated in detail with its definition, basic features, reasons, tools, types, and roles. A comparison was made between bullying and cyberbullying, and similarities and differences were revealed. Finally, a general conclusion was made based on the results of the research conducted around the world in the last quarter. The results reveal that cyberbullying is an increasing problem and is spreading uncertainly in almost every country.
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While globalization continues to spread and change dimensions at full speed, the methods of acquiring, processing, storing, and distributing information with new methods are becoming increasingly different. Ease of access to information almost anywhere in the world and frequency of use raises the question of which information serves the purpose. In this sense, the distinction between clean and dirty information is possible only if the information is processed correctly and presented to the service of humanity. But how possible is this? The main challenges in the digital age are not so much information creation but how best to acquire, store, process, develop and make it useful (Parks, 2013). The rapidly increasing developments in digital (and social) technologies, especially with the century we live in, make human life a part of information technologies rather than making information technologies a part of our lives. Being just a click away from almost anywhere in the world, the virtualization of maps to cities, streets, and avenues, and the absence of borders at local, national, and international levels make our daily experiences limitless. Without exception, new programs and new experiences in the fields of work and learning are knocking on our door. Countless emails, instant messaging and video conferences are the most important parts of the daily routine. Isn't it crystal- clear that digital technologies are part of our lives when it is considered that academicians move away from printed books and prefer to use digital books and databases the education is evolved into universal digitalization especially due to pandemic conditions we are all going through, we share professional and social lives with our friends, family members, and colleagues through social networking platforms that enable us to cross our individual boundaries (Lovrich & Robinson, 2001).

Ovejero (2014) explains the relationship of human life with digital technology through culture and ideology. In fact, this new culture, fed by the neocapitalist, that is, the “neoliberal globalization ideology”, creates “neoliberal subjects” who think that they can use all environmental factors, including humans, in order to gain a certain amount of benefit. This neoliberal ideology, which is especially internalized by the new generation of adults, makes it difficult to live together at a reasonable level by highlighting features such as selfishness, individualism, fatalism, competition of everyone against everyone, and the internalization of the idea of individual benefit. If we look at the issue in an abstract way from an ideological point of view, it is certain that the Internet and information technologies have changed the habits of life and will continue to do so. This is an inevitable change and transformation. On the other hand, it is a fact that this transformation has many positive contributions to human life and facilitates both social and commercial life. It must be admitted that the cyber world has been seen as a medium where people of all ages feel safe at a certain level and can develop a free discourse, attitude, and behavior towards certain events. Although universal reasons such as being a global citizen and being able to be heard by others lie at the heart of this adoption, by the end of the 1990s humanity had to face the extent to which information and digital technologies could deteriorate. Although the spread of the Internet corresponds to the early 1990s, this new and yet undefined form of bullying, cyberbullying, is now known and experienced in the media, business life, and education life (Netzley, 2014; Weber & Pelfrey, 2014). Although there is a centuries-old experience on classical bullying, there is no history to be used as a guide on cyberbullying. This is one of the unique problems of the new century (Englander, 2020). This study started by defining the key concepts related to the concept of cyberbullying. The key concepts mentioned will contribute to understanding the content of the subject. Afterward, the concept of bullying was first explained within the framework of a conceptual evaluation. Then, the details of the concept of cyberbullying were explained in order, and a general evaluation was made on the studies on cyberbullying in the last quarter.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Addiction: Biopsychosocial disorder that occurs with increasing amounts of repetition of substances or behaviors that create pleasure and pleasure in the individual.

Bullying: An aggressive behavior in which one person intentionally and repeatedly harms or causes discomfort to another.

Harassment: A form of behavior that is threatening and/or harmful to the physical, mental and/or spiritual integrity of the person.

Aggression: An act of physical or psychological anger and hostility by an individual towards another individual(s).

Cyberbullying: The persistent, technical, or relational harm behavior of an individual using information and communication technologies.

Public Awareness: Actions taken with the aim of guiding people living in their inner world with all their problems for any reason and creating social consciousness about an issue.

Virtuality: They are things that do not exist as a concept but are accepted to exist with delusions formed in the mind through technological tools.

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