Design and Analysis of Battery-Less Sensor Networks: A Cross Layer Approach

Design and Analysis of Battery-Less Sensor Networks: A Cross Layer Approach

Ali Abedi (University of Maine, USA) and Kale Schrader (University of Maine, USA)
Copyright: © 2012 |Pages: 17
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-0960-0.ch013
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Abstract

One of the major limiting factors preventing wide use of wireless sensor networks in practical scenarios is power consumption. Battery-less or passive sensors promise to alleviate this issue and enable a wide variety of embedded sensor applications such as structural health and vehicular monitoring, biomedical applications, smart homes, and smart grids. Embedding these sensors in structures without the need for changing batteries, their rugged design to withstand harsh environments, and coded communication with multiple access features makes this technology a desirable candidate for a variety of applications. Design and analysis of these sensors from a cross layer point of view is studied in this book chapter. State of the art in fabrication and test of this new class of wireless sensor systems is also reviewed. Interactions between lower layer with passive sensors and upper layer with active sensors—a different perspective on cross layer—is exploited to achieve significant performance gains in terms of signal to noise and interference ratio, correlation peak to side-lobe ratio, operation range, and data rate.
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Introduction

In this chapter, an overview of hybrid sensor systems with passive layer and active layer wireless sensors is presented. This is a different way of looking at cross layer design where interactions between sensors in passive layer and sensors in active layer provides a great advantage for practical applications. Particular application scenarios including distributed source estimation, impact localization, and shape monitoring are studied and relevant results are presented. After reading this chapter, you should be able to

  • Understand operation of a battery-less wireless sensor

  • Distinguish between various passive and active wireless sensor layers

  • Design and analyze a battery-less wireless sensor system

  • Use cross-layer approach to optimize battery-less wireless sensor network performance

  • Apply knowledge gained in this chapter to practical scenarios

Required background to understand materials in this chapter include communication theory, introductory level information theory, and familiarity with electromagnetic and acoustic wave propagation. Most required concepts are introduced in appropriate locations in the text; however, the readers are encouraged to study the references cited for further information.

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