Designing and Evaluation of Aluminium Thin-Film Electrochemical Sensors for Biomedical Analysis

Designing and Evaluation of Aluminium Thin-Film Electrochemical Sensors for Biomedical Analysis

Gaurav Dinesh Kulkarni (National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India), Suraj Kumar Nayak (National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India), Kailash Das (National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India), Jyoti Prakash Kar (National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India), Biswajit Mohapatra (Vesaj Patel Hospital, India), D. N. Tibarewala (School of BioScience and Engineering, Jadavpur University, India), Arfat Anis (King Saud University, Saudi Arabia) and Kunal Pal (National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2440-3.ch021
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In recent years, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has received special attention of the researchers due to its suitability for sensing/analysis of the cells and the biological molecules in a label-free manner. The current study proposes the fabrication of thin-film aluminium electrodes on a glass substrate by thermal evaporation method. The electrodes were fabricated having gaps of varied lengths. Different electrical models were used to determine the electrical stability of the system using an in-lab developed LabVIEW program. The electrode having the best stability was used for EIS analysis of distilled water and saline solutions of different strengths to validate its proper functioning.
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The sensing and monitoring of biomedical processes are very difficult mainly due to the rapid variations in their physical or chemical properties with time. Till now, various methods have been proposed by scientists to solve such problems. In recent years, many attempts have been made in solving many complex problems using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Especially, when it comes to the multidisciplinary fields like biomedical engineering, researchers are more focused on the development of impedance-based cheap, portable and fast instruments and sensing devices (Feldman, 1998; T. C. Johnson, Balbierz, & Pearson, 2005; Krüger, et al., 2002; Solly, Wang, Xu, Strulovici, & Zheng, 2004). Although certain major limitations still exist, the sensing efficiency and sensitivity of these devices are increasing rapidly. This section provides a brief discussion on a few major biomedical problems and their proposed solutions using EIS.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Electrical Stability: Electrical stability of a linear system refers to the ability of the system to produce a finite output for a finite input.

Impulse Response: Impulse response of a system refers to the output of the system for an impulse input.

Sensor: A sensor is a device which responds to a stimulus and provides an output signal.

Electrode: An electrode is a conductor used to set up electrical contact with the non-metallic part of an electric circuit.

Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS): EIS is a technique to characterize the dielectric properties of an electrochemical system as a function of frequency.

Nyquist Plot: Nyquist Plot is a method of representing the frequency response of a linear system.

Bode Plot: Bode plot refers to a standard method of graphical representation of the frequency response of a system. It consists of a magnitude plot and phase plot.

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