Developing Entrepreneurial Competencies for Secondary Schools as Social Enterprises: Inclusiveness in Decision-Making Processes

Developing Entrepreneurial Competencies for Secondary Schools as Social Enterprises: Inclusiveness in Decision-Making Processes

Thea van der Westhuizen (University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) and Sthokozile Luthuli (University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2714-6.ch011

Abstract

The chapter is written from an Afrocentric perspective with a focus on South Africa and aims to investigate the potential of developing a school as a social enterprise while developing entrepreneurial competencies of the school's internal and external environments. Research objectives were set to determine perceptions of educators on learners' and their own involvement in the school's strategic management process, to explore critical organisational aspects that can engage educators in active decision making and educators' view of the current role they play within the decision-making process. It was found that secondary schools within a South African context, as mostly not viewed as a potential social enterprise and that educators have limited entrepreneurial competencies, which can contribute to strategic development of the school. It is recommended that the school's internal and external environment should be included to develop the school as a social enterprise with strategies to alleviate poverty and instill a mindset of entrepreneurial competence among youth and the community alike.
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Background And Problem

Including teachers in school-level decision-making is a vital part of any school. This may be especially true in third world countries such as those in parts of Africa where decision-making has historically been denied them. Decision-making has always been viewed as a function of management, but it is a cooperative task—in Afrocentric terms often referred to as an element of “Ubuntu”. An entire ecosystem should be included in the decision-making processes or, as the African saying goes: “It takes a village to raise a child”. Decision-making, in this context, is related to collaborative work and management of the collective. Therefore “The Collective” contributes towards entrepreneurial competence development and social enterprise development from including youth, as early as secondary school level, to improve socio-economic conditions, alleviate poverty and instill a culture of entrepreneurial competence which might lead towards enhanced employment rates.

Educational policies require systemic educational changes, and there is a need to recall, reconsider and rearrange these policies. Ward (2018) claims that the inclusiveness of teachers in school-level decision-making is valuable as teachers will be able to make sound decisions together within the school. The growth of the school, staff motivation and communication in the school will be improved.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Secondary Schools: A school intermediate between elementary school and college and usually offering general, technical, vocational, or college-preparatory courses.

Afrocentric: Pre-eminent to African culture, for the purpose of this chapter within a South African context.

Social Enterprise: An organisation that applies commercial strategies to maximise improvements in financial, social and environmental well-being. For the purpose of this chapter, the school viewed as a potential social enterprise.

Entrepreneurial competencies: Competencies relating to the entrepreneurial mindset which include, Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy, Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation, Entrepreneurial Intent and Entrepreneurial Actions.

Inclusive decision-making: For the purpose of this chapter this term refers to involving all roleplayers within the school’s internal and external environment to develop the school as a social enterprise.

Ecosystem: For the purpose of this chapter, an ecosystem is intermediaries who support the school and forms part of the social system to which the school belong and the community where its located.

Ubuntu: An African Nguni term that means the potential for being human, to value the good of the community above self-interest. To strive to help people in the spirit of service, to show respect to others and to be honest and trustworthy.

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