Developing Multilevel Models for Research

Developing Multilevel Models for Research

John Turner (University of North Texas, USA), Kristin Firmery Petrunin (University of North Texas, USA) and Jeff Allen (University of North Texas, USA)
Copyright: © 2015 |Pages: 27
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-7409-7.ch023
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In the past, a large number of research efforts concentrated on single-level analysis; however, researchers who only conduct this level of analysis are finding it harder to justify due to the advancements in statistical software and research techniques. The validation of research findings comes partially from others replicating existing studies as well as building onto theories. Through replication and validation, the research process becomes cyclical in nature, and each iteration builds upon the next. Each succession of tests sets new boundaries, further verification, or falsification. For a model to be correctly specified, the level of analysis needs to be in congruence with the level of measurement. This chapter provides an overview of multilevel modeling for researchers and provides guides for the development and investigation of these models.
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Developing Multilevel Models For Research

Researchers analyze hierarchical or nested structures, when conducting applied research in organizations, schools, health care facilities, and family settings. Hofmann (2002) indicated that ignoring these simple hierarchical structures can lead to incomplete and misspecified models. These hierarchical structures “shape, create, encourage, and reward behavior in organizations” (Hofmann, 2002, p. 248). Including this hierarchical structure into conceptual and theoretical models allows researchers to better capture the level of complexity because hierarchical systems increase our levels of understanding.

In the past, a large number of research efforts concentrated on single-level analysis, primarily studies concentrating on one level of analysis (i.e., personality studies, evaluation of manager’s leadership abilities). Researchers who only conduct a single-level analysis are finding it harder to justify because of advancements in statistical software and research techniques. Today, researchers replace the single-level research studies with the more complex multilevel analysis techniques. For example, researchers who study hierarchical systems, such as organizations and schools, want to consider multiple impacts within the system. In these hierarchical systems, when a change is made in one part of the system each adjoining system is also affected, changing the whole system. By concentrating only on a single-level study, researchers ignore the surrounding environment, the effect that the individual has on the group and the organization / school. Alternatively, changes at the organization / school level also affect the team and the individual levels. To better understand the complex nature of hierarchical systems Kozlowski and Klein (2000) proposed that researchers utilize “approaches that are more integrative, that cut across multiple levels, and that seek to understand phenomena from a combination of perspectives” (p. 77).

In theoretical and applied research, the level of analysis is typically ill defined (Kozlowski & Klein, 2000). Literature often contains errors when individual-level data is incorrectly applied to team, organization, or school levels (Kozlowski & Klein, 2000). Some common errors in organizational and school research include misspecification errors, such as:

  • Blind aggregation of individual-level measures to represent unit-level constructs;

  • Use of unit-level measures to infer lower-level relations (the well-known problems of aggregation bias and ecological fallacies); and

  • Use of informants who lack unique knowledge or experience to assess unit-level construct (Kozlowski & Klein, 2000).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Single-Level Theory: A theory that maintains the same level of analysis.

Theory: A synthetic or abstract representation, explanation, or prediction of a phenomena.

Level of Analysis: The hierarchical level in which data are representative. For example, team measurements represent a team level of analysis, whereas individual measurements represent an individual level of analysis.

Level of Measurement: The level the data are measured. For example, if individuals from a team or organizational division are measured, the level of measurement is at the individual level.

Multilevel Theory: A theory that models complex relationships across different levels of analysis.

Variable: A measureable representation of a construct or an event.

Operationalization: The transition of a construct (not directly observable) to a variable (observable).

Construct: An abstract representation describing a component of a theory (i.e., cognition, meta-cognition, conscience, perception, instinct, synaptic gap) that is not directly observable.

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