Developing Trends in Power and Networking Technologies for Intelligent Cities

Developing Trends in Power and Networking Technologies for Intelligent Cities

Kadir Alpaslan Demir (Turkish Naval Research Center Command, Turkey) and Buğra Turan (Koc University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-5062-5.ch003
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Abstract

The introduction of Industry 4.0 has increased the focus on a number of technologies. These technologies also help realize the vision for intelligent cities. Furthermore, there are already discussions of Industry 5.0. One emerging aspect of Industry 5.0 is human-robot co-working. With the help of artificial intelligence, the internet of things paradigm, Industry 4.0, and Industry 5.0 visions, there will be two predominant types of systems interfacing with people in intelligent cities. These are robotic and ambient intelligence systems. The increasing deployment of these will help make cities even smarter. However, we need to see advancements in a number of relevant key technologies, including power and networking technologies. In this chapter, first, the authors briefly discuss Industry 4.0, Industry 5.0, and intelligent cities paradigm, as well as robotic and ambient intelligence systems. Then, they focus on developing trends in power and networking technologies.
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Introduction

Artificial Intelligence (AI) research has been on the rise in recent years. AI is one of the key technologies for the realization of Industry 4.0. There are also other key technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), big data, robotics, and cloud computing. 3D printing, virtual and augmented reality, smart logistics, ambient intelligence are also among other supporting technologies for Industry 4.0 (Demir, Turan, Onel, Ekin, & Demir, 2019). Note that all these technologies support the development of each other. The motto of Industry 4.0 is “Smart Manufacturing for the Future”. Its focus is industrial development and mainly “Smart Factories”. Recently, various scholars and futurists started discussions on Industry 5.0.

There are various visions for Industry 5.0 (Demir and Cicibas, 2018). One emerging vision attracting more attention than others is “Human-Robot Co-working”. Another aspect of Industry 5.0 is the bioeconomy (Demir and Cicibas, 2018). While we do not know which vision of Industry 5.0 will be realized, both visions are relevant to intelligent cities, also known as smart cities or digital cities. Therefore, it is possible to argue that Industry 5.0 and its related technologies will support the realization and further development of intelligent cities. We will discuss these revolutions and their relevance to intelligent cities in the following sections.

An intelligent city comprises numerous smart devices and intelligent information services. We believe these services will be delivered by two predominant types of systems, viz: robotic (Samani and Zhu, 2016) and ambient intelligence systems (O'grady and O'hare, 2012; Streitz, 2011). These systems will interface with other smart systems and interact with people. Robotic systems will mainly be used in cases where we need physical assistance such as cleaning or transportation services. In other cases, ambient intelligence systems will likely be utilized to make cities even smarter. Imagine a smart cashier-less store, where shelves are stocked by robots and payments are handled by an ambient intelligence system. Amazon recently opened a smart store called Amazon Go (Amazon Go, 2019; Demir, et al., 2019), where, there are no cashiers. Thus, there are no queues and no physical checkout. Customers just “grab-and-go”. Amazon Go is just an earlier example of a smart store that will be predominant in intelligent cities. In the next sections, we discuss robotic and ambient intelligence systems in some detail.

While robotic and ambient intelligence systems will be the technologies interfacing humans, there will be other technologies supporting intelligent cities in the background. Power and networking technologies are among the important ones for intelligent cities. Power is required for any type of information system. However, it is more important for mobile systems such as smartphones and robots. Power has currently been a limiting factor for advancement in both these types of systems. For most smartphones, a recharge is needed almost every day. Many drones are limited in operation time due to limited power supply. Internet of Things (IoT) will also be an important enabler for smart cities. However, the IoT also brings many challenges. One of the main challenges is the massive networking that the IoT paradigm brings. Networking demand will likely increase exponentially in a smart city. Therefore, efficient power and networking technologies are crucial for smart devices, systems, and services in such digital cities. We discuss the developing trends in power and networking technologies in the following sections.

The organization of this chapter is as follows: There are three main sections. In the first section, we discuss the industrial revolution, particularly the vision of Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0. We naturally focus on their relevance to intelligent cities. In the second section, we discuss robotic and ambient intelligence systems for intelligent cities. The third section presents the developing trends in power and networking technologies. Finally, we conclude the chapter. In what follows, we will use the smart city and intelligent city terms, interchangeably.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Robotic Systems: Robotic systems are defined as systems that provide intelligent services and information by interacting with their environment, including human beings, via the use of various sensors, actuators and human interfaces ( Object Management Group, 2005 ).

Industry 4.0: Industry 4.0 is the latest industrial revolution initiated by the German Government with the motto “Smart Manufacturing for the Future”.

Human-Robot Co-Working: Human-robot co-working may be defined as human persons working with robots in a collaborative manner in which robots handle part of a work task.

Industry 5.0: Industry 5.0 is the industrial revolution brought by the widespread use of robots in a wide range of industrial and business settings. The motto of Industry 5.0 is “human-robot co-working”.

Smart Sustainable City: A smart sustainable city is an innovative city that uses information and communication technologies (ICTs) and other means to improve quality of life, the efficiency of urban operation and services, and competitiveness, while ensuring that it meets the needs of present and future generations with respect to economic, social, environmental as well as cultural aspects (International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector [ITU-T] Focus Group on Smart Sustainable Cities [ITU-T FG-SSC]).

Ambient Intelligence: Ambient intelligence refers to electronic or digital environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of people ( IST Advisory Group, 2003 ; Aarts & Encarnação, 2005 ; Ramos, Augusto, & Shapiro, 2008 ). Furthermore, ambient intelligence is a digital environment that supports people in their daily lives by assisting them in a sensible way ( Augusto, 2007 ).

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