Development of Environmental Taxes in The European Union in The Globalization Process: The Case of Croatia

Development of Environmental Taxes in The European Union in The Globalization Process: The Case of Croatia

Arzu Erdinç Ertürk (Uşak University, Turkey) and Onur Ertürk (Manisa Celal Bayar University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-4459-4.ch018
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Unfortunately, people harm the environment as a result of their economic activities. The deterioration of environmental balance and global climate changes in the world as a result of this destruction give the awareness of environmental protection prominence. Many organizations operate on a global scale to protect the environment and return it to its former natural balance. In this context, the European Union (EU) is one of the communities that care about the environment. There are important operations for environmental protection within this community. Environmental tax is a good example of tools determined for use in protecting the environment. As is known, Croatia is the latest country to join the EU in 2013. To reveal the importance the EU attaches to environmental protection, environmental tax practices, the development of environmental taxes before and after its EU-membership in Croatia are analysed. Besides, the course of environmental taxes in Croatia from 2002 to 2018 is evaluated in the study.
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Environmental Taxes In The Globalization Process

The developments experienced with globalization and communication technologies have significantly affected the social, political, economic and financial structures of countries. Accordingly, the increase in the production and consumption activities in the world, together with the globalization process, affect our environment negatively. These effects lay bare before us the necessity of protecting the environment, that is, removing/minimizing current pollution in the environment. Of course, environmental taxes are of great importance in reducing negative impacts on the environment.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Kyoto Protocol: It is the only international framework directed to combat global warming and climate change. It was signed within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Transport Taxes: This term refers to taxes within the EU levied on the sale or use of motor vehicles.

Eurostat: It is a general directorate within the European Commission and headquartered in Luxembourg. The main purpose of the institution is to provide statistical information to the European Union through surveys carried out across Europe.

Pollution Taxes: They are the taxes within the EU the tax bases of which include items such as wastewater, noise, and solid waste.

Environmental Problems: Desertification, reduction of biodiversity, deforestation, destruction of the ozone layer, acid rains, air, water and soil pollution, hazardous wastes, depletion of natural resources, sea and ocean pollution and acidification of the oceans constitute environmental problems.

Climate Change: It is the emergence of changes in the current climate system due to reasons such as internal and human effects, periodic activities of the sun, and greenhouse gases.

Ecological Balance: It refers to all the conditions necessary for human beings and other living creatures to continue their existence and development per their natural constitution.

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