Dietary Fibers and Nutraceuticals in Prevention of Hypertension

Dietary Fibers and Nutraceuticals in Prevention of Hypertension

John Intru Disouza (Tatyasaheb Kore College of Pharmacy, India), Kiran Shivaji Patil (Tatyasaheb Kore College of Pharmacy, India), Pratik Shailendra Kakade (Institute of Chemical Technology, India) and Vandana Bharat Patravale (Institute of Chemical Technology, India)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 41
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3267-5.ch007

Abstract

Hypertension is the major cause of mortality amongst many cardiovascular risk factors causing 7.5 million deaths annually. Macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies are very common in general population and have broad-ranging physiological effects in-vivo which lessen inflammatory cascades and vascular reactivity. A recent trend is to perform nutritional epidemiological studies linking overall diet pattern to the lifestyle, examining the link between food and nutrients of diet to risk of chronic diseases. This chapter would deal with pharmacological and pathological basis of hypertension, utilization of dietary fibers, functional foods, nutraceuticals for hypertensive populations as well as to those with increased cardiovascular risks.
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Hypertension

Hypertension is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality associated with stroke, heart failure and coronary artery disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (Mancia, Fagard, Narkiewicz, Redón, Zanchetti, & Böhm, 2013). Hypertension in adults of age 18 years and older is defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 140 mmHg or greater and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90 mmHg or greater or any level of blood pressure in patients taking antihypertensive medication (Chobanian, Bakris, Black, Cushman, Green, & Izzo, 2003).

Table 1.
Types of hypertension
          Category Pressure          Systolic Pressure mm Hg          Diastolic Pressure mm Hg
     • Normal          90–119          60-79
     • Pre-hypertension          120–139          80–89
     • Stage 1          140–159          90–99
     • Stage 2          ≥160          ≥100
     • Isolated systolic Hypertension          ≥140          <90

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