Dimension of Molecules of Compounds of Biogenic Elements

Dimension of Molecules of Compounds of Biogenic Elements

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9651-6.ch005

Abstract

Chemical compounds of biogenic elements are considered (i.e., chemical elements present in living organisms and ensuring the successful functioning of their various organs and systems). Biogenic elements are divided into s-, p-, and d-elements, in which respectively are completed with s-, p-, and d-electronic orbitals. In each of these groups, the structure of compounds of biogenic elements is investigated, and the dimension of the corresponding molecules is determined. It is proved that s- and d-biogenic elements exhibit increased chemical activity (higher than the standard valence) due to participation in the formation of a chemical bond of electrons of the preceding level. This leads to the creation of complex molecules of higher dimension. The chemical compounds of biogenic p-elements, which are the building blocks for the formation of biomolecules (elements of life), will be specifically investigated in subsequent chapters.
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Biogenic Elements

In living organisms, one can find almost all the elements that exist in the earth's crust and in sea’s water. Ways of receipt of elements in organisms are diverse. According to Vernadsky's (2012) biogeochemical theory, there is a biogenic migration of atoms along a chain of air, soil, water, food, man. As a result, almost all the elements surrounding a person in the environment, to a greater or lesser extent, penetrate into the body. The chemical elements necessary for living organisms to build and live the activity of cells and organs are called biogenic elements. According to the concentration in the body, biogenic elements are divided into macro - elements, micro - elements, and ultra - micro - elements. Biogenic elements whose content exceeds 0.01% of body weight are called macro - elements. These include 12 elements C, H, O, N, P, S, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, and Fe. Biogenic elements, the total content of which is about 0.01% of body weight is called micro - elements. The content of each of them ranges from 978-1-5225-9651-6.ch005.m01% to 978-1-5225-9651-6.ch005.m02 %. The micro - elements include, for example, active transition metal atoms in the centers of enzymes and hormones. Some micro - elements exhibit affinity for certain tissues (iodine - to the thyroid gland, fluorine - to the enamel of the teeth, zinc - to the pancreas, molybdenum - to the kidneys, etc.). Elements whose content is less than 978-1-5225-9651-6.ch005.m03% are classified as ultra - micro - elements.

The current state of knowledge about the biological role of elements can be characterized as a superficial touch to the problem. A lot of evidence has been accumulated on the content of elements in various components of the biosphere, the body’s response to their excess and deficiency. Compiled maps of biogeochemical zoning and biogeochemical provinces. There is no general theory of the examining function of the mechanism of action and the role of biogenic elements in the biosphere.

In this Chapter, based on the previous monographs of the author (Zhizhin, 2017a, 2018), the question is being considered that a possible mechanism of the action of biogenic elements is the creation of molecules with higher dimension in their neighborhood. What exactly in the space of higher dimension the main processes of creation and development of living matter occurs.

It is known that with insufficient intake of one or another biogenic element in the body, the growth and development of the organism slows down significantly. This happens, for example, by reducing the activity of enzymes that contain this biogenic element. With an increase in the dose of this element, the response of the body increases and reaches the norm (the biotic concentration of the element). The greater the width of the plateau in this function, the less toxic the element, since a further increase in dose leads to a negative effect of the element due to its taxis. Elements vary in their taxing power. The elements Hg, Pb, Be, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Ni differ by special taxability and prevalence. They compete with other trace elements and can displace them from biological complexes.

Biogenic elements are divided into three groups: s -, p -, and d - elements, i.e. elements in which building s -, p -, and d - are sublevels of the external level of the electronic structure of the atom, respectively. The monograph (Zhizhin, 2017a) investigated in detail the chemical compounds of almost all existing elements and showed that the majority of the molecules of these compounds have a higher dimension. Can one now select the compounds of biogenic elements from them and some elements with special taxability.

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