Disability Issues, Aging, and Preventive Measures

Disability Issues, Aging, and Preventive Measures

Ashok Kori (Dharwad Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (DIMHANS), India) and Manjunath R. Bajantri (Dharwad Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (DIMHANS), India)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 11
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3480-8.ch026
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As we know, aging is an ongoing biological process from which no human being can escape. Although everyone is familiar with ageing, defining it is not so easy. There is no United Nations standard numerical criterion of old age, but, it is agreed cut off is 60 plus years. Currently, due to the availability and accessibility of effective medication and treatment at specialty hospitals that increase life expectancy of old age people, over the past century, the population, although aged with disabilities, has aged around the world. Recent advances in the field of medicine, public health, technology, and rehabilitation in different streams have reduced the discrepancy in life expectancy for persons with disabilities.
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Understanding Disability

Definition of Disability have been mentioned by various authors and defined in Acts of Government of India. It is difficult to define ‘Disability’ since it varies in types, form and intensity. Understanding disability will require understanding these differences. According to the World Health Organization “Disability is any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform in a manner or within the range considered normal for a human being”.As per the Persons with Disability Act 1995, it has been defined as “a person suffering from not less than forty per cent of any disability as certified by a medical authority” (PWD Act, 1995).

One of the Author identified different types of disabilities like blindness, low vision, cerebral palsy, leprosy cured, hearing impairment, locomotor disability, mental illness and mental retardation as well as multiple disabilities (Baquer, 1994).

Rights of the Person with Disabilities act 2016 has been published in Gazette of India, According to this new act “person with disability” means a person with long term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairment which, in interaction with barriers, hinders his full and effective participation in society equally with others (RPD Act, 2016).

The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) define disability as an umbrella term for impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions (ICF).

The NSSO considered disability as “Any restriction or lack of abilities to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for human being”. It excludes illness /injury of recent origin (morbidity) resulting into temporary loss of ability to see, hear, speak or move.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Prevention: The goals of medicine are to promote and to preserve health, to restore health when it is impaired, and to minimize suffering and distress.

Morbidity: Morbidity is an incidence of ill health. It is measured in various ways, often by the probability that a randomly selected individual in a population at some date and location would become seriously ill in some period of time.

Ageing: The process of growing old or developing the appearance and characteristics of old age.

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