Dysbiosis, Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth, and Chronic Diseases: A Translational Approach

Dysbiosis, Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth, and Chronic Diseases: A Translational Approach

Ana Rita Silva (Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar Egas Moniz, Portugal), Maria Alexandra Bernardo (Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar Egas Moniz, Portugal), Maria Fernanda Mesquita (Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar Egas Moniz, Portugal), José Vaz Patto (Instituto Português de Reumatologia, Portugal), Pedro Moreira (Faculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentação, Universidade do Porto, Portugal), Patrícia Padrão (Faculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentação, Universidade do Porto, Portugal) and Maria Leonor Silva (Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar Egas Moniz, Portugal)
Copyright: © 2021 |Pages: 29
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-4808-0.ch015
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Abstract

Dysbiosis is characterized by an alteration in quantity and quality of intestinal microbiota composition. In the presence of dysbiosis, enterocytes will have difficulty in maintaining the integrity of the mucosal barrier, leading to increased intestinal permeability. These events are recognised to be linked to several chronic diseases. One of the consequences of dysbiosis is the manifestation of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), which is associated to a variety of chronic diseases. Single food nutrients and bioactive molecules, food additives, pre- and probiotics, and different dietary patterns may change the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Low FODMAPs diet has been a reference in SIBO treatment. This chapter intends to describe how the intestinal microbiota, dysbiosis, and SIBO can be related; to define dysbiosis food and nutrients influence; and to offer some nutritional therapy strategies for applying the low FODMAPs protocol, enabling better adherence by patients in order to increase their wellbeing.
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2. Dysbiosis And Intestinal Permeability

Microbial programming begins in utero, and the composition of the microbiota is modulated by multiple factors including mode of delivery, gestational age, perinatal antibiotic exposure, feeding practices, environment, genetics, age, stress, diseases, and lifestyle, namely physical activity and diet quality and quantity (Rautava et al., 2012). Eating habits influence the gut bacterial structure and function during different time frames, including daily circadian rhythms of sleep-wakefulness and feeding-fasting cycle, and throughout the human lifespan (Zmora et al., 2019).

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