Economic Load Dispatch: Optimal Power Flow and Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Concept

Economic Load Dispatch: Optimal Power Flow and Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Concept

Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 19
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-6971-8.ch002

Abstract

The main objective of the power system is to deliver electric energy to its loads economically and efficiently in a safe and reliable manner. Due to the complicated structure of the present power system network and competitive environment introduced by deregulation, optimal power flow (OPF) and optimal reactive power flow (ORPD) provide efficient exploitation of existing power generations. This chapter describes the detail problem formulation of OPF and ORPD problems. In this study, three different single objectives, namely fuel cost minimization, voltage profile improvement, and transmission loss minimization, are considered. Moreover, in order to judge the effectiveness of the proposed methods for multi-objective scenario, two bi-objectives, namely simultaneous minimization of fuel cost and voltage deviation; simultaneous minimization of fuel cost and transmission loss; and one tri-objective function, namely simultaneous minimization of fuel cost with voltage deviation and loss, are considered.
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Economic Load Dispatch

Economic load dispatch (ELD) (Lee & Park, 1998; Lokeshgupta & Sivasubramani., 2018) problem is one of the fundamental issues of power system operation and planning. The economic operation is very important for a power generation system to return the maximum profit on the huge capital invested. For achieving maximum profit, so, it is important to operate the power system at maximum possible efficiency. Maximum efficiency not only minimizes the cost of per unit energy produced by the company but also extends benefits to the consumers who are utilizing it. Economic operation determines the power produced by each unit in such a way that minimizes the fuel cost to serve the specific system load. Thus, the main objective of constrained ELD is to determine optimal operation strategy for allocation of generations of committed generating units’ so as to meet the load demand at minimum operating cost subject to a variety of constraints. In essence, it is a complex non-linear optimization problem with a mixture of linear and non-linear constraints.

Objective Function

The objective of ELD (Qin et al., 2017) is to minimize the generation cost while satisfying all the equality and inequality constraints and is given by (1)Minimize 978-1-5225-6971-8.ch002.m01(1) where, 978-1-5225-6971-8.ch002.m02is the total fuel cost;978-1-5225-6971-8.ch002.m03, 978-1-5225-6971-8.ch002.m04 are the fuel cost and generating power, respectively, of the ith generating unit; n is the number of generators.

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