Ecosystem Wetlands Restoration Approach for Sustainable Development Planning

Ecosystem Wetlands Restoration Approach for Sustainable Development Planning

Carolina Collaro (Nova Gorica University, Italy)
Copyright: © 2015 |Pages: 11
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-5888-2.ch286
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1. Introduction

Wetlands are singular ecosystems situated at the transition between terrestrial and aquatic systems. Their unique properties and uncommon location provide to human important benefits, or “ecosystem services,” (ES) classified into four categories by the Millenium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA, 2005; Andel, 2006) (Table 1).

Table 1.
Ecosystem services obtained from wetlands (MEA, 2005)
ServicesComments and Examples
PROVISIONING
FoodProduction of fish, wild game, fruits and grains
Fresh waterStorage and retention of water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural use.
Fiber and fuelProduction of logs, fuel wood, peat, fodder.
BiochemicalExtraction of medicines and other materials from biota.
Genetic materialGenes for resistance to plant pathogens, ornamental species, and so on.
REGULATING
Climate regolationSource on and sink for greenhouse gases;influence local and regional temperature, precipitation, and other climatic processes.
Water/hydrological regulationGroundwater recharge and disharge.
Water purification/ waste treatmentRetention, recovery, and removal of excess nutrients and other pollutants.
Erosion regulationRetention of soils and sediments
Natural hazard regulationFlood control, storm protection
PollinationHabitat for pollinators
CULTURAL
Spiritual and inspirationalSource of inspiration; religions attach spiritual and religious values to aspects of wetland ecosystems.
AestheticMany people find beauty of aesthetic value in aspects of wetland ecosystems.
EducationalOpportunities for formal and informal education and training.
SUPPORTING
Soil formationSediment retention and accumulation of organic matter.
Nutrient cyclingStorage, recycling, processing, and acquisition of nutrients

Key Terms in this Chapter

Sea Level Rise: The rise of sea level due to seawater volume's change and thermal expansion's change, it could be apparent, due to subsidence, and scientists could give one measure, summing this apparent sea level.

Ecological Restoration: Ecological functions and processes' rehabilitation.

Ecological Restorations and Sustainable Planning: To plan for ecosystem maintenance and conservation avoiding loss of services and functions.

Ecosystem Approach: A strategy for land, water and living resources' management which promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way.

Climate Change: A statistically significant change in the mean state or the temporal variability of the climate due to natural variation of external forcing, anthropogenic changes in the atmosphere’s composition, or changes in land use.

Adaptive Management: An approach to natural resources' management based on learning by doing, and on making decisions as part of an on-going process of monitoring,review, and adaptation.

Constructed and Restored Versus Natural Wetlands: The complex intervention of ecological functions and processes 's of wetland's rehabilitation in a landscape context and regarding a natural wetland as reference site.

Wetland Restoration: Wetland's ecological functions and processes rehabilitation returning to a natural pristine state only after many years.

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