Education from the Enlightenment to the Globalization

Education from the Enlightenment to the Globalization

Gheorghe Rudic (Centre of Modern Pedagogy, Canada)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9634-1.ch001
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Abstract

The chapter presents a series of “calls” offered by globalization to education and to educational system, which are not compatible with our time: the integration of Enlightenment Age into Globalization; the conflict with the pedagogical sciences (the transition from the knowledge-pedagogy to competency pedagogy); the attempt, through changing the old form declare a fresh content; the aspiration, through linear thinking to reveal the essence of education in multi-dimensional space; through the low level of functional literacy implement the highest levels of education; the current level of cybernetics to substitute of using computers as a technical training aids; while remaining in the framework of the modernism to prepare the next generation for life in the post-modernism. In this chapter the “calls” are analysed as the paradoxes in education, through the prism of scientists' opinion from various fields of science, public figures and the teaching community (copyright pilot study). This synthetic approach has allowed to outline a new conceptual framework.
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Introduction

Today, “all institutions of higher education almost everywhere in the world have been influenced by the concept of globalisation. The resulting policy changes in each nation state have, of course, reflected the degree of the impact of globalisation on the country, hence the changes in higher education” (Banya, 2005, p. 147). First, a dynamic competition is the process that links globalization to knowledge production. Secondly, globalization describes the spread, intentionality, of more and less continous waves of innovation. Howerver, the spur of innovation is perceived to be a matter of survival.

The research (Torres, 2002, p. 363) has shown that globalization places limits on state national sovereignty, affecting education in various ways. Globalization not only blurs national boundaries but also shifts solidarities within and outside the national state. Moreover, globalization cannot be defined exclusively by the post-Fordistm organization of production, therefore, issues of human rights will play a major role affecting civic minimums at the state level, the performance of capital and labor in various domains, and particularly the dynamics of citizenship and democracy in the modern state.

One of the first effect of globalisation to educational system is the changing paradigm from closed system to more open system. Research has shown (Almeida & Japanstudies, 2015) that an educational system is very complex and dynamic, that is why there are many differences in systems between countries, but it canals differ from school to school. Nevertheless, what most countries have in common when it comes to education is that they are aiming for educational equality. They want for everyone to have equal educational opportunities and to be able to make the best out of their education. Education of the individual became important and compulsory years of schooling were increased to nine years to give more people a chance at a better education.

The second effect can be considered the changing approach from teacher-centered learning environment to learner-centered environment. The paradigm of globalisation, associated with the shift from teacher-centered to learner-centered learning environment, derived from: a) the impact of ICT on education; b) productive view of learning versus reproductive learning; c) constructivist cybernetic versus behaviorist; d) learning facilitation versus teaching; e) process-based assessment versus outcome based assessment and others.

Recent trends in education indicates to social constructivism norms for knowledge content systems; knowledge configuration (association, synthesis etc.). Brow (2005) notes that paradigm shifts in education have contributed to the ever-growing need to innovate our educational practice and to explore new learning paradigms. Cognizance needs to be taken of the fact that ICT developments are impacting educational practice and that we will, in the near future, experience shifts in learning paradigms. Our thoughts are based on:

  • Scientific method, scientific generalization and aggregation, as well as on multi-dimensional synthesis of the system's components of new educational units;

  • Philosophical approach;

  • Social-situational analysis in three or more coordinates.

  • On the other hand, based on the system-synergetic approach of the educational system features:

  • Existence of a complex and open system;

  • Existence of an equilibrium system with a maximal entropy;

  • Emergence of a new order and complexity of the system due to states fluctuations of their elements and subsystems;

  • Presence of positive feedback system, which prevail over negative.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Enlightenment: A period of time between 1650 and 1780 in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis and individualism and make possible the first scientific revolution. In this era were published widely read works of Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes, John Locke, Baruch Spinoza, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Sir Issak Newton and others. One of the most prominent figure in education was Comenius, who wrote in 1850 the famous “Didactica Magna”.

Multi-Dimensional Synthesis: A combination of two or more different entities that together form something new more complex task; alternately, it refers to the creating of something new by forge joint and carry out the procedures of analysis and synthesis, which are interconnected with the category of whole structure.

Literacy: “A kind of reality that educators should be able to grasp and explain, or, expressed in more classical terms, that literacy has an 'essence' that can be captured through some Aristotelian-like enterprise” ( Scribner, 1984 ).

Open System: A system that regularly exchanges feedback with its external environment.

Functional Literacy: The term, defined in 1960 by UNESCO as the set of tangible skills: reading and writing, which in the context of a globalizing world, means from a simple process of acquiring basic cognitive skills to “using these skills in ways that contribute to socio-economic development, to developing the capacity for social awareness and critical reflection as a basis for personal and social change” ( Education for All, 2006 ).

Competence Pedagogy: The scientific interdisciplinary area of research that deals with the theory and practice of competence development; it thus concerns the study and practice of how innovative strategies, methods, procedures of techniques can improve competence development.

Method of Aggregation: A scientific way of calculation top level data based on the lower level.

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