Effect of Odia and Tamil Music on the ANS and the Conduction Pathway of Heart of Odia Volunteers

Effect of Odia and Tamil Music on the ANS and the Conduction Pathway of Heart of Odia Volunteers

Suraj Kumar Nayak (National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India), Utkarsh Srivastava (National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India), D. N. Tibarewala (School of BioScience and Engineering, Jadavpur University, India), Goutam Thakur (Manipal Institute of Technology, India), Biswajit Mohapatra (Vesaj Patel Hospital, India) and Kunal Pal (National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India)
Copyright: © 2017 |Pages: 24
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0536-5.ch012
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Abstract

The current study delineates the effect of Odia and Tamil music on the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and cardiac conduction pathway of Odia volunteers. The analysis of the ECG signals using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that the features obtained from the HRV domain, time-domain and wavelet transform domain were statistically insignificant. But non-linear classifiers like Classification and Regression Tree (CART), Boosted Tree (BT) and Random Forest (RF) indicated the presence of important features. A classification efficiency of more than 85% was achieved when the important features, obtained from the non-linear classifiers, were used. The results suggested that there is an increase in the parasympathetic activity when music is heard in the mother tongue. If a person is made to listen to music in the language with which he is not conversant, an increase in the sympathetic activity is observed. It is also expected that there might be a difference in the cardiac conduction pathway.
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Introduction

Studies by various researchers have indicated that the emotional/ mood states of a person may be altered by making them listen to music (Juslin & Sloboda, 2001). Music can also help in reducing the anxiety of the patients in the coronary care units (Haun, Mainous, & Looney, 2001). The change in the state of mind, as mentioned above, affects the functioning of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) (Yamashita, Iwai, Akimoto, Sugawara, & Kono, 2006). The ANS comprises of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems (Martini, 2005). The parasympathetic nervous system increases the intensity of contraction of the heart muscles due to the release of acetylcholine (Kiernan & Rajakumar, 2013). This, in turn, results in the decrease in the heart rate. The sympathetic nervous system, on the other hand, releases noradrenaline, which results in the increase in the rate of the heart muscle contraction (Triposkiadis et al., 2009). Hence, there is an increase in the heart rate. The ANS tries to maintain a balance amongst the sympathetic and parasympathetic system (sympathovagal balance) (Goldberger, 1999). A stimulus (either internal or external) may either increase the parasympathetic or the sympathetic activity depending upon the nature of the stimulus. Subsequently, the ANS starts acting to bring both the activities to balance. This results in the cardiac beat-to-beat variation of the cardiac activity (Sztajzel, 2004). Hence, the activity of the ANS can be analyzed by analyzing the ECG signals. The branch of study which allows to understand the ANS by analyzing the ECG signal is known as Heart Rate Variability (HRV) (Sztajzel, 2004). In the present study, we have tried to understand the effect of Odia and Tamil music on the ANS activity of the Odia volunteers. A thorough literature survey suggested that, though researchers have studied the effect of music on the heart rate variability, very few reports were found, which studied the effect of music on the ECG signals (Umemura & Honda, 1998). Hence, the statistical features of the ECG signal and the wavelet processed ECG signal were calculated and analyzed using linear and non-linear statistical processing techniques for classification using Automated Neural Network (ANN).

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