Effects of Alcohol Policy on Population Variables and Control Measures: A Case Study in Dodoma Municipal Council, Tanzania

Effects of Alcohol Policy on Population Variables and Control Measures: A Case Study in Dodoma Municipal Council, Tanzania

R. W. Kisusu (Local Government Training Institute, Tanzania), N. Kalimangʼasi (Local Government Training Institute, Tanzania), N. Macha (Local Government Training Institute, Tanzania) and J. L. Mzungu (Local Government Training Institute, Tanzania)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-5146-3.ch012
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Abstract

This case study of Dodoma Municipal Council focuses on the application of statistical tools to establish Population Variables (PVs) affected by alcohol and suggested control measures. The establishment relied on primary data involving a sample size of 156 respondents selected through purposive sampling and analyzed by cross-tabs and Chi-square. The analysis found alcohol policy affects mostly the lower-educated population, small householders and youths, and these were significant at 0.029, 0.002, and 0.006 levels, respectively. The inferences drawn shows within PVs, alcohol reduces students’ performances, influences separation of families, and increases poverty in the households, and all were significant at 0.003, 0.028, and 0.003, respectively. The findings conclude that alcohol affects all PVs, which consequently ends up deteriorating welfare. Therefore, to combat alcohol, the chapter recommends usage policy legal measures and educating the masses on the effect of alcohol.
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Introduction

The alcohol intake has remained the integral part of all civilization, to which Tanzania is no exception. However lack of not establishing effect of alcohol remains the challenging issue in many countries including Tanzania. Henceforth it is possible that this problem got a minimal attention as alcohol consumption began thousands of years ago. The historical facts revealed by Wikipedia (2011) indicate how consumption of alcohol known to various countries many centuries ago and these include Persia 5400 - 5000 BC, China 7000 BC, India 3000 – 2000 BC, Babylon 2700 BC and Greece 2000 BC. Even classical philosophers such as Plato (429 -347 BC), Hippocrates (460 – 370 BC) and Aristotle (384- 322 BC) also praised how alcohol was useful on population but condemned drunkenness caused by excessive drinking.

In African continent, history of alcohol development was also remarkable. Since indigenous alcohol beverages, particularly palm wine and local brands of snifter were in use throughout Africa even before the advent of Europeans (Tongue, 1976). Anthropologists also reported how in Equatorial Africa, palm wine was the only indigenous beverage but others reported that in spite of controlled tribal’s drinking, excessive alcohol consumption was known before Europeans came to Africa (Tutuola, 1953). This is based on the literatures that some African tribes mostly Ashanti of West Africa made spirits and strong liquor by distillation but the use of strong alcohol drinks spread in African countries during the time of slave trade and colonialism. It is through this, colonial domination which resulted in profound social cultural changes in the African way of life including the consumption of the liquor to prohibited strong alcohol drinks (Onyouka, 1984, Asuni, 1986, Akyeampong, 1995). As, a result, numerous countries continued consuming alcohol and level of consumption spreads worldwide.

On an average, recommendable consumption ranges between 1 – 2 and 2 – 4 drinks per day for men and women respectively or 140 -210 and 84 – 140 gram for men and women per week respectively (Djoussé et al., 2000). Theoretically, alcohol was consumed due to several reasons, as medicinal treatment for some specific diseases, pleasure and entertainment as well as for sacrament purposes (Andréasson and Allebeck, 2005). In spite of the merits of consuming alcohol, several literatures indicate that how alcohol caused a terrible impact to human health, even resulting in loss of life. As such it is a World dilemma, the evidence of which is supported by innumerable studies. For instance, Laatikainen et al (2003) found how increased mortality was related to heavy alcohol intake pattern. McGinnis et al (1993) also found how actual cause of death in the United State of America was due to excessive alcohol consumption. Others like Emberson and Bennett (2006) reported the effects of alcohol on increasing risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. The situation continues to be worsening, as several reports noted how excessive use of alcohol reduces prospective memory and brain damage particularly neurologic aspects (Heffernan, 2008; Neiman, 1998). Urbano-Marquez et al (1989) also reported that how the effect of alcohol on skeletal and cardiac muscle was terribly horrific. Furthermore, Tjønneland et al (2007) found how alcohol intake is associated with breast cancer risk, while the studies by Tapert et al (2001) found the extent of brain dysfunction due to excessive consumption of alcohol amongst young women is worse. Moreover, Galimanis et al (2009) and Vogel (2002) found that lifestyle is correlated with stroke risk heart disease and mortality. Abdulla (1997) earlier concluded that why alcohol consumption is not good for human being.

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