Effects of Classroom Colour on Learning Processes for a Future Smart Classroom: A Systematic Review

Effects of Classroom Colour on Learning Processes for a Future Smart Classroom: A Systematic Review

José Quiles-Rodríguez, Ramon Palau
Copyright: © 2023 |Pages: 37
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-8156-1.ch016
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Scientific literature shows that colour has an enormous impact on education, at all educational stages, and is universally understood. Colour is a fundamental part of learning environments but its influence on learning processes needed to be systematically classified. As far as the authors know, this is the first study to categorise the various cognitive and affective-social processes that are influenced by colours and their shades. In the 21st century, with the rise in educational technology and concepts such as smart classroom or intelligent learning environments, a new perspective also opens up for colour in classroom environments. “Dynamic colour” can be enhanced thanks to the possibilities of coloured light with LED technology. Few studies have been made on the issue, but those that have belong more to fields such as interior design. This study shows its future potential but should be followed by further research to demonstrate its possibilities in the field of education.
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The influence of colour, and more specifically classroom colour, on learning processes has been a highly referenced topic in the educational literature since the 1950s (Merleau-Ponty, 1945/1958, as cited in Poldma, 2009). However, few attempts have been made to systematically synthesise the existing information (Manca et al., 2020). At the same time, there has been a decrease in specific studies on colour in the educational environment, in favour of studies of a broader set of environmental factors (Barrett et al., 2015), which may amplify the influences on the learning process but does lead to a lack of commonly accepted criteria about how to exploit the potential of colour.

According to Gago Galvagno & Elgier (2018), despite the rise in neuroeducation in recent years, no concrete or systematic links have been found between it and colour. Thus, the growing interest in using knowledge about the brain to drive educational innovation and improvement, characteristic of neuroeducation (Mora, 2017), has yet to be applied to colour in the classroom. Here again, as Manca et al. (2020) pointed out, there seems to be no connection between individual research studies so there is no assessment of the holistic impact on cognitive and affective-social processes. However, there is clearly too much literature for order to be restored.

At the same time, there is growing agreement that learning spaces are being transformed by the incorporation of technology, which will make learning more effective, efficient and enjoyable (Goodyear & Retalis, 2010). The new educational landscape reveals that concepts such as “smart classroom” or “smart learning environment” are increasingly appearing in the educational scientific literature. Koper (2014) claims that in a smart classroom both the spatial, contextual and cultural environment must be related to at least one digital device to enhance the teaching-learning process. Palau & Mogas (2019) also use similar terminology to refer to smart learning environments (SLE), which, if the are to be considered as such, must include technological strategies that are used consciously to help students.

“Dynamic colour”, which changes in association with the coloured light of LED technology, has educational possibilities that have not yet been explored. However “dynamic lighting” (Mogas-Recalde & Palau, 2021) has been explored, Suh et al. (2020) claim that it is likely that when coloured lighting is introduced into the learning environment, academic performance will clearly improve.

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