Electrophoretical Deposition of Nanotube TiO2 Conglomerates Detached During Ti Anodizing Used for Decomposing Methyl Orange in Water

Electrophoretical Deposition of Nanotube TiO2 Conglomerates Detached During Ti Anodizing Used for Decomposing Methyl Orange in Water

C. Y. Torres López (Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Electroquímica, S.C., Mexico), J. J. Pérez Bueno (Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Electroquímica, S.C., Mexico), I. Zamudio Torres (Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Electroquímica, S.C., Mexico), M. L. Mendoza-López (Instituto Tecnológico de Querétaro, México), J. E. Urbina Álvarez (Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Querétaro, México) and A. Hurtado Macías (Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Mexico)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6363-3.ch022
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Abstract

This chapter shows the experimental findings on preparing TiO2 nanotubes by anodizing titanium into an organic medium for an intended use as a fotocatalytic active electrode in treating water polluted with organic contaminants. The substrates were grit blasted in order to obtain mechanical fixation of the generated nanotubular TiO2 structure. This was successfully achieved without diminishment of the nanotubes order and with a self-leveled outer surface. A new phenomenon occurred when detached fragments from the modified layer were electrophoretically deposited. They were ordered and grow as deposits. In addition, they maintain their nanotubular shape conferring a homogeneous size in the porous structure.
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Background

The growing demand of the society for the decontamination of polluted waters from diverse sources, embodied in increasingly stringent regulations, has driven in the past decade to the development of new purification technologies. In practice, the application of the treatment methods primarily considers the nature and physicochemical properties of the water or effluent to be treated.

The water contaminated by human activity can generally be processed efficiently by biological treatment plants, by adsorption with activated carbon or other adsorbents, or by conventional chemical treatments (thermal oxidation, chlorination, ozonation, potassium permanganate, etc.). However, in some cases, these procedures are inadequate to achieve the degree of purity required by law or by the subsequent use of the treated effluent.

In general, dye-containing effluent is treated by biological means, adsorption, membrane, coagulation-flocculation, oxidation-ozonation and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). The AOPs have been developed for non-biodegradable pollutants to degrade harmful species in water for human consumption and industrial effluents. The combination of heterogeneous photocatalysis on semiconductors and UV light is considered one of the most promising AOPs for degradation of water-soluble organic compounds (Esquivel, Arriaga, Rodríguez, Martínez, & Godínez, 2009; Grabowska, Reszczyńska, & Zaleska, 2012; Jardim, Moraes, & Takiyama, 1997; Michael, Hapeshi, Michael, & Fatta-Kassinos, 2010).

The following summarizes the advantages of the AOPs against conventional methods:

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