Electrotechnology as One of the Most Advanced Branches in the Agricultural Production Development

Electrotechnology as One of the Most Advanced Branches in the Agricultural Production Development

Viktor Ivanovich Baev (Volgograd State Agrarian University, Russia), Igor Viktorovich Yudaev (Don State Agrarian University, Russia), Vladimir Aleksandrovich Petrukhin (Volgograd State Agrarian University, Russia), Ivan Viktorovich Baev (Volgograd State Agrarian University, Russia), Petr Victorovich Prokofyev (Volgograd State Agrarian University, Russia) and Nikola Kolev Armyanov (Rusensk University, Bulgaria)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3867-7.ch007

Abstract

This chapter describes how electric current is the main electrotechnological working tool in crop farming. It can initiate the plant growth and development or it can suppress, damage and destroy them. The stimulating electrotechnology example involves the electrical stimulation of ligneous plants allowing grafting survivability and growth. Alternatively, the suppressing and damaging current influence is vividly illustrated by the electro-impulse of sunflower and tobacco plants for pre-harvest processing. The demonstrative example of plants' electric destruction is weeds control using electro-impulse technology. The electrotechnologies effect on nature with key points' of usage and issues, alongside their technological and economic efficiency benefits are considered in the chapter.
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Background

Lots of research was devoted to the influence of electrical currents and fields on living plant objects. In 1901, Vyazemski studied the properties of plant tissue under the action of a direct current (Vjazemskij, 1901). Up to 1911, Michurin made research on electrical current action on growth of seedlings of grapes, apples, pears, etc. (Michurin, 1948). In the 20th century the problems of electrical effects on plant growth were studied by N.A. Artemiev (Evreinov, 1954).

A great interest is Spirin (Spirin, 1953) whose research in the destruction of weeds by using high voltage electrical impulses.

In 1960, A.A. Klimov offered (Klimov, 1962; Klimov, 1964) the electrospark pre-harvesting treatment of sunflower, which started a number of uses of electrical energy action on plants with different technological purposes across the world (Klimov, Baev, Savchuk &.Sokolovski, 1970; Slesarev, Gubanova, & Nechaev, 1970; Diprose, Hacham & Benson, 1978; Antonov, Armianov, & Dragiev, 1984; Nedjalkov, 1996).

The diversity of electrotechnological processes, which were developed under A.A. Klimov, is represented in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

Electrotechnologies classification

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The Main Focus Of The Chapter

The main focus of the chapter is to show the list of several electrotechnologies and to explain their theoretical and practical levels of research.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Damaging Degree: Determined as plant tissue resistance ratio before and after the electric processing, calculated at frequency 10 kHz.

Working Electrodes: Electrodes of the electrotechnical installation by means of which electrical energy is supplied to the processed plant material.

Dispersion of Impedance or Total Electrical Resistance (Active Component of Total Electrical Resistance, Electrical Resistivity, etc.) of Plant Tissue on Frequency: Dependence of impedance or total electrical resistance (active component of total electrical resistance, electrical resistivity, etc.) of plant tissue on the frequency of the alternating measuring current of nontraumatic density, applied in electrophysiology, electrotechnology and other sciences to assess the viability of the studied biological tissue, including plant.

Electrotechnology in Agriculture: Complex of methods and techniques of electrophysical influence on technological processes in order to obtain agricultural products of specified properties with a minimum of labor and energy costs, as well as to create comfortable conditions and stimulate the development of living organisms for increasing quantity and quality of agricultural products without expanding the acreage, livestock and poultry, as well as increasing the shelf life of finished products and protecting it from pests and diseases.

Intergrowth Degree Concept (the Degree of Intergrowth): This is the ratio of the scion contact place resistance and the rootstock flowing to the initial (immediately after the grafting).

High-Voltage Electropulse Action: Effect of the electrophysical nature on the processed material, which is carried out by means of successively generated high-tension voltage pulses (at given frequency), for example, in the discharge circuit of the impulse voltage generator.

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