Emerging Technology and Today's Libraries

Emerging Technology and Today's Libraries

Barbara Holland (Brooklyn Public Library, USA)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 33
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-4742-7.ch001
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The purpose of this chapter is to examine emerging technology and today's libraries. New technology stands out first and foremost given that they will end up revolutionizing every industry in an age where digital transformation plays a major role. Major trends will define technological disruption. The next-gen of communication, core computing, and integration technologies will adopt new architectures. Major technological, economic, and environmental changes have generated interest in smart cities. Sensing technologies have made IoT possible, but also provide the data required for AI algorithms and models, often in real-time, to make intelligent business and operational decisions. Smart cities consume different types of electronic internet of things (IoT) sensors to collect data and then use these data to manage assets and resources efficiently. This includes data collected from citizens, devices, and assets that are processed and analyzed to monitor and manage, schools, libraries, hospitals, and other community services.
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Governments and organizations worldwide are preparing for the changes brought along by the 4th Industrial Revolution (4IR). The 4IR builds on the previous Digital Revolution, introducing new ways in which technology becomes embedded within societies.

In certain industries, the labor force is being raddled out by the integration of Fourth Industrial Revolution technologies. In the context of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, there is a new demand to be an interdisciplinary and T-shaped person - that is, one who has an in-depth knowledge of a specific field, with enough knowledge in other fields outside their specialization. The skills gained outside of their area of specialization offer complementary knowledge that enables them to also enrich their field of expertise.

There are three reasons why today’s transformations represent not merely a continuation of the Third Industrial Revolution but rather the arrival of a Fourth and distinct one: velocity, scope, and systems impact. When compared with previous industrial revolutions, the Fourth is evolving at an exponential rather than a linear pace. (Schwab, 2018).

Moreover, it is disrupting almost every industry in every country. These changes indicate the transformation of entire systems of production, management, and governance.

The possibilities of billions of people connected by mobile devices, with unprecedented processing power, storage capacity, and access to knowledge, are limitless. These possibilities will be multiplied by emerging technology breakthroughs in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, the Internet of Things, autonomous vehicles, 3-D printing, nanotechnology, biotechnology, materials science, energy storage, and quantum computing.

In the future, technological innovation lead to long-term gains in efficiency and productivity. Transportation and communication costs will drop, logistics and global supply chains will become more effective, and the cost of trade will diminish, which will open new markets and drive economic growth.

Economists Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee have pointed out, the revolution could yield greater inequality, particularly in its potential to disrupt labor markets. As automation substitutes for labor across the entire economy, the net displacement of workers by machines might worsen the gap between returns to capital and returns to labor. On the other hand, it is also possible that the displacement of workers by technology will, in the aggregate, result in a net increase in safe and rewarding jobs.

It is unpredictable at this point which scenario is likely to emerge, and history suggests that the outcome is likely to be some combination of the two. We are at the beginning of a revolution that is fundamentally changing the way we live, work and relate to each other. (Schwab, 2018)

Additionally, new IT concepts have appeared, including digital transformation, cloud computing, and the Internet of Things (IoT). They have had an impact on the population, cities, and infrastructures. The internet of things is altering our lives and work environment.

Today Cities are becoming smart cities. Whereby citizens, visitors, and businesses act as mobile sensors by carrying smartphones that are part of an intelligent ecosystem.

Within smart cities, there are smart buildings with Smart appliances and voice-controlled assistants that are just two examples of how technology is evolving to make people’s lives easier. Libraries that are incessantly evolving to meet the needs of their diverse communities with technological growth and disruptive technologies.

Similarly, a profound change happening right now around is a family of technologies known colloquially as a blockchain. Smart cities are looking into and adopting blockchain technology to ensure the data collected by sensors and devices are stable.

This chapter will examine Emerging technology, today's Libraries, and several cases throughout the chapter.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Edge Computing: The deployment of data-handling activities or other networks away from centralized and connected segments.

Django-Django: Is an advanced web framework written in Python that makes use of the model view controller (MVC) architectural pattern.

Smart Contract: A smart contract is a code placed on a blockchain, which digitally enforces the performance of a contract. The most well-known smart contract platform is Ethereum.

SWOT Analysis: Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis is a framework used to evaluate a company's competitive position and to develop strategic planning.

Ethereum: Is a contract management platform that uses the digital financial ledger technology blockchain to create contracts that the foundation calls “smart contracts.”

Off-Chain Services: Off-chain services provide secure means to access capabilities outside a blockchain system, such as trusted data sources or functions.

ORCID: Open Researcher and Contributor ID is a nonproprietary alphanumeric code to uniquely identify scientific and other academic authors and contributors.

Fog Computing: An alternative to cloud computing that puts some kinds of transactions and resources at the edge of a network, rather than establishing channels for cloud storage and utilization.

M2M (Machine-to-Machine): Refers to a wireless or wired network setup that allows devices of the same type and ability to communicate freely.

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