Empirical Analysis of Tourism Factors Affecting Tourists' Satisfaction: Evidence from Paro, Bhutan

Empirical Analysis of Tourism Factors Affecting Tourists' Satisfaction: Evidence from Paro, Bhutan

Nilanjan Ray (Netaji Mahavidyalaya, India) and Dillip Kr Das (The University of Burdwan, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0143-5.ch013
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Abstract

Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. It has become one of the vital issues of economic and social benefits to the society. This paper identifies the impact of tourism in Paro, different motivational factors which may directly or indirectly influence the tourists' satisfaction. The primary objective of this study includes the growth, development and emergence of tourism potentials in Paro, in particular, as well as to analyze the tourist flow pattern and also examine the existing and future requirement in the motivational point of view. For the accomplishment of the purposed objective, data for the study were collected through pre -structured questionnaire. The sample size was restricted to 100 tourists. In terms of the present scenario of the above components, how to attract more tourists and promoting infrastructural requirement for better tourism service to improve the level of tourists' motivation.
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Introduction

Tourism is defined by the World Tourism Organisation (NSCB, 2004), as the act travelling for the purpose of recreation and the provision of services for this act. Currently, this industry is one of the fastest growing industries all over the world. This smokeless, dynamic industry is basically a kind of service industry, as it renders service to the tourists and all other supporting industries related to tourism like, hotel industry, transport industry etc. This business involves many socio-economic activities like promotion and advertising tourist spots and destinations, providing effective transport facility, fooding-lodging, entertainment etc. At the same time when the tourism industry is flourishing it helps in socio-economic development of those tourist destinations. Tourism industry is also an employment-oriented sector. It is estimated that hotel and catering sector provide more than 10% of the total employment generated by the tourism industry. It also helps in strengthening the economical status of the country by earning foreign currencies without exporting national wealth. So, it is obvious that if this industry becomes more effective and efficient, it will definitely be the major source of revenue and will take a leading role in the overall economic development of the nation.

Bhutan Tourism

Tourism destinations are generally following kinds of products are available, viz. historical, cultural, natural-based, architectural-based, and biodiversity-based. Tourists’ motivation has influenced by variety of factors like tourism infrastructure, civic amenities, publicity, and peoples’ ignorance in accessibility to the tourist locations. As a result of this, tourists from home country and overseas countries prefer to visit specially urban and easy accessible tourist sites. It has tremendous potential for growth due to peoples’ interest for travel and to explore nature and religious sites. Bhutan is a small land-locked kingdom situating in the Himalayan Mountains between Bhutan and China. It has enjoyed the reputations as one of the most pristine and exclusive travel destinations in the world. This country of rolling hills and towering crags certainly exudes charm. Like timeless images from the past, the travelers encounter the full glory of this land of Gross National Happiness (GNH). Tourism in Bhutan began in the year 1974. From the initial days still now, “High Value- Low Impact” is the unique policy Bhutan’s tourism. The fact that the resources on which the country’s tourism is based are limited implies that, tourism must be environmentally and ecologically friendly, socially and culturally acceptable and economically viable. Tourism in Bhutan is expected to play a key role in the country’s economic growth, human resource, culture, wealth of the country in terms of foreign exchange earnings, etc. Simultaneously, it has a direct bearing on local culture, socio-economic pattern of life, traditions, food habit, language, values & ethics of the local people due to frequent visits of national and international tourists in attractive tourist destinations. People love to visit this culturally enriched Himalayan country to have a flavor of pilgrimage, cultural heritage, and nature and last but not the least to get a flavor of Gross National Happiness in their daily monotonous life. In this process the tourists from all parts of the world not only rejuvenate from these visits but also directly contribute for the growth of the local economy in terms of hospitality industry, handicraft industry and secondary occupation as tourists guide, carriers, etc. Bhutan received 6,582 tourists on an average since 1998. Tourism industry in this country has always been accredited in a list of top ten revenue agencies, ranking fourth from the list in the financial year 2002-2003. But, within the Government, there is tension between a desire to maintain policies of cultural preservation and to embrace the employment and other economic opportunities related to tourism. There are concerns that allowing more tourists in will change what makes Bhutan an appealing destination for travelers, namely the “the untouched destination. But proper policy implication and balancing the demand and supply of tourism motivational requirement indicators will help in raising revenue and will help in promoting the country’s unique culture and tradition to the outside world.

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Objectives

Major objectives of this present study are as follows:

Key Terms in this Chapter

Cultural Comfortability: An individual’s experience of feeling comfort with the cultural setting.

Tourism: Tourism is a social, cultural and economic phenomenon related to the movement of people to places outside their usual place of residence. Tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.

Tourist: Someone who travels for pleasure and recreation and exchange of culture.

Cultural Adaptability: The socio-political, infrastructural as well as financial ability of an individual or a society to accept and acknowledge the cultural constituents.

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