Encouraging Empirical Research and European/American Andragogy Coming Closer as Distance Education Grows in Strength: Eras 11, 12

Encouraging Empirical Research and European/American Andragogy Coming Closer as Distance Education Grows in Strength: Eras 11, 12

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3937-8.ch004
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Abstract

Billington found that with 60 male and female doctoral students aged 37 to 48, there were seven andragogical factors that helped them grow, or if absent made them regress or not grow. Rachal clearly identified seven criteria for implementing future empirical studies of andragogy. Taylor et al. asserted that no conversation on teaching adults is complete without discussing andragogy. However, Grace considered andragogy in the USA and Canada as being complicit in sidelining cultural and social concerns as well as decontextualizing adult learning, while having been effectively dismantled in the 1980s and 1990s. Showing the strength of andragogy through its long history in Europe, Savicevic indicated that comparative andragogy has eight elements that are essential in addressing this scientific research topic. Sopher stressed Knowles was best viewed as humanistic, philosophically. Henschke also found deep captivating involvement in both European and American andragogy. This chapter explores this.
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Introduction

This Chapter begins with Billington’s (2000) discovering that with 60 male and female doctoral students aged 37 to 48, there were seven andragogical factors that helped them row, or if absent made them regress or not grow. Rachal (2002) clearly identified seven criteria for implementing future empirical studies of andragogy. Taylor, et al (2000) asserted that conversation on teaching adults is complete without discussing andragogy. However, Grace (2001) considered andragogy in the USA and Canada as being complicit in sidelining cultural and social concerns as well as decontextualizing adult learning, while having been effectively dismantled in the 1980s and 1990s. Nonetheless, Merriam (2001) observed andragogy emerging as a scientific discipline; Wilson (2002) viewed andragogy’s research in ‘fluid intelligence’ as paralleled with brain research; and Boucouvalas and Henschke (2002) brought andragogy around global cooperation. Showing the strength of andragogy through its long history in Europe, Savicevic (2003) indicated that comparative andragogy has eight elements that are essential in addressing this scientific research topic. Haugoy (2003) identified andragogy closely with various models of flexible open learning processes in which learners had the will, motivation and discipline to take control of their learning. These go back to Bishop Gruntvig’s life path, they found their way into nine European countries. On the American side, Sopher’s (2003) study was the seventh dissertation focusing on Knowles’ work in andragogy. She found that Knowles is best understood by practitioners and researchers only if he is viewed in the humanistic philosophy, in the context of his times and in the four movements with which he interacted. By this time Simonson (2003) found a connection was emerging between andragogy and distance education. Henschke (2004) also expressed in poetic terms a deep captivating involvement in both European and American andragogy.

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