Endophytes and Their Role in Phytoremediation and Biotransformation Process

Endophytes and Their Role in Phytoremediation and Biotransformation Process

Aparna Baban Gunjal (Haribhai V. Desai College, India), Meghmala S. Waghmode (Annasaheb Magar Mahavidyalaya, India), Neha N. Patil (Annasaheb Magar Mahavidyalaya, India) and Balasaheb P. Kapadnis (Savitribai Phule Pune University, India)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 14
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3126-5.ch015
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This chapter discusses the endophytic bacteria and their role in agriculture. The endophytes help in the plant growth by various mechanisms and also help in disease control. The capability of colonizing internal host tissues of plant has made endophytic bacteria valuable for agriculture to improve crop performance. Various endophytic diazotrophic bacteria colonize primarily the root interior of graminaceous plants. The review also discusses the role of endophytes in phytoremediation and induced systemic resistance. Endophytes have found important role in the production of many bioactive compounds, which have various applications (e.g., antibiotics, antimicrobial compounds). The contributions of this research field will have economic and environmental impacts.
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Genomics Of Endophytes

Earlier studies describes interactions of endophytic bacteria and plants. Adapting steps used to study gene expression such as in-vitro expression technology and recombination in-vivo expression technology by Preston et al. (2001) may provide insight into genes required by bacteria to colonize the plant and survive within the plant. Published genome sequence of several endophytic bacteria includes Enterobacter spp. 638, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia R551-3, P. putida W619, S. proteamaculans 568, Azospirillum spp. B510, A. diazotrophicus Pal5, Azoarcus spp. BH72 and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342.

Endophytic Diazotrophic Bacteria

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria have been isolated from the rhizosphere of sugarcane grown in tropical soils of Brazil (Dobereiner & Ruschel, 1958). Endophytes colonize the roots of graminaceous plants even though it had been already demonstrated that these type of bacteria occur inside plants. Associative or facultative endophytes colonize surface and root interior, whereas obligate endophytes colonize the inside of roots and aerial parts of plants. Facultative and obligate endophytic diazotrophs colonizing non-leguminous plants include several bacteria belonging to the genus viz., Azospirillum (A. brasilense, A. lipoferum, A. amazonense, A. irakense) and the endophytes H. seropedicae, H. rubrisubalbicans, A. diazotrophicus, Azoarcus spp. and Burkholderia spp. isolated from sugarcane, palm trees, forage grasses, tuber plants, cereals, sweet potato, etc. Studies with nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacteria isolated from different tropical regions have shown their importance from the agronomic point of view (Azevedo et al., 2000).


Endophytes In Various Plant Tissues

Endophytic bacteria are associated with plants as biotrophic symbionts. Some are symbiotic with both monocots and dicots. The means of infecting host plants intercellular is primarily conjecture as the few studies have demonstrated the nature of in planta association (Bacon & Hinton, 2002).

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