Energy Aware Optimized Routing Protocols for Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Network

Energy Aware Optimized Routing Protocols for Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Network

Alok R. Prusty (Siksha ‘O' Anusandhan University, India), Srinivas Sethi (Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology (IGIT), India) and Ajit Kumar Nayak (Siksha ‘O' Anusandhan University, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2454-1.ch070


Advancement in wireless technology made human life become simple and easy going. Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Network (WASN) is one of the friendly wireless networks used to monitor the most unfriendly and ever changing dynamic environment that restricts continuous human attention. WASN has drawn significant attentions due to its unique capabilities to deal with complex network operation in highly resource constrained network construct. This ad hoc and unstructured deployment of tiny sensor nodes operate with controlled transmission range, processing capabilities, as well as very limited battery backup. The severe power depletion affects the existence of active nodes. Hence, data forwarding and reliable packet routing in such phenomenon oriented network becoming a challenge. In this chapter the clustering and hierarchical routing approaches for WASN environment has been briefly presented followed by some optimization strategies applicable to cluster routing process. This chapter can help researchers to think fresh dimensions of ongoing research in WASN cluster routing.
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Routing is the act of selecting best path or links in the network for transmitting data and information across the route from source to destination. The routing protocols are the part of the network layer which decides what should be the succeeding intermediate node for the packet based on certain metrics that evaluate quality and goodness of the travelling path. A metric is a measurement which can be path bandwidth, reliability, delay, current load on that path, energy usages, link quality etc. Routing protocols maintain routing tables with several parameters based information among which, destination or next hop ID through which the router will route the packets so that intended destination can be optimally achieved. Some of the routing protocols allow a router to have numerous “intermediate hop” for a single destination depending upon different metrics. It compares metrics depending on the objective of the routing protocol to find optimal routes. Routers maintain their routing tables by communicating variety of messages. For example, link-state advertisement informs other routers about the state of the sender's links, so that optimal routes to destinations can be traced out. There are certain properties for routing protocols:

  • 1.

    Correctness in Packet Delivery.

  • 2.

    Robustness even in case of failures.

  • 3.

    Stability to support changing network conditions.

  • 4.

    Efficiency for minimum overhead with respect to different routing metrics.

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