Energy Aware Routing Strategies for an Evolving Wireless Sensor Network: A Survey

Energy Aware Routing Strategies for an Evolving Wireless Sensor Network: A Survey

Solmaz Salehian (Oakland University, USA), Shamala K. Subraminiam (Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia) and Rozita Salehian (Islamic Azad University, Malayer, Iran)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0501-3.ch009
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Abstract

A critical issue in Wireless Sensor Networks is optimization of energy consumption. The development and deployment of various paradigms of algorithms addressing these optimization needs has formed the underlying design factors of solutions. Strong correlation exists between physical discoveries making sensors indeed cross the boundaries. This chapter presents a detail review and analysis of substantial algorithms which have structured the elevation of Wireless Sensor Networks and its realization. This encompasses the graceful migration from conventional WSN, Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network to the inventive WSN-Internet Protocol (WSN-IP). An enhanced taxonomy synthesizing these algorithms is presented to complement the identified trend transition in WSN. Each algorithm is reviewed and detail comparatives are deliberated. This chapter also presents a wide spectrum of open issues in the development of WSN algorithms for changing sensor architecture.
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Introduction

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are constantly revolutionizing the dynamics of the human civilization via its contemporary emerging paradigms such as the Internet of Things (IoT) (Chui, Löffler, & Roberts, 2010) and enabled Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (Ehsan & Hamdaoui, 2012). Positive market expansions have been displayed by wireless based products and with an indeed accelerated pace. Thus, it seems logical to project that within the next 10 to 15 years the world will be dominated by Internet accessible WSN that are blended into the essence of each human life (Singhal, Gankotiya, Agarwal, & Verma, 2012). The harnessing of cohesive resources to bridge sensor abilities in context of physical innovation is a clear indicator of the potential investment. WSNs are real-time in nature with highly constrained resources, however with enormous potential to be used for numerous and heterogeneous applications. A substantial portion of these constraints are related to the mobile and wireless features of sensor nodes that have a direct relation with the consumption of energy. Therefore, the trade-off of possessing portability in WSN is the loss of a fixed source of energy. Acknowledging energy as being among the critical and core members of the resource repository, it has an absolute influence on the viability WSN. It requires devotion on the signification of the design and development pertaining energy issues in WSNs. Adverse energy dissipation and unbalance energy consumption are among these prevailing issues. The unbalance energy consumption problem is caused by the physical and logical attributes of a node (i.e. location), which imposes differing demands. These distinctions categorize certain nodes as critical nodes exemplifying their responsibilities especially within the multihop communications architecture. The gradient of nodes subjects to its selective location within a super group of divisional zones of Base Station (BS) creates an uneven energy consumption topology. This is mainly due to the differences in terms of location which imposes a differentiated workload. The nodes which are located geographically closest to the BS are responsible to deliver its own data in addition to those belonging to other nodes. These nodes are faced with the constant threat of being subject to consume large portions of energy as compared to other nodes. These critical nodes eventually emerge most unwillingly among the set of nodes to be the node that will die first. These network divisions of nodes are also referred as the hotspot area. The subsequent problems which rise from this, are the uneven network and relative energy consumption. To ensure that these energy issues does not pose as a hindrance factor to further portability, serious attention must be placed on energy management issues such the energy dissipation and unbalanced consumption.

The wide spectrum and state-of-the-art research (Jiang, Shi, Xiang, & Tang, 2010; Liu & Lin, 2003; Soro & Heinzelman, 2005) in this area serves a testimony for the constant effort to address challenges which energy consumption causes. These constitutes substantial efforts to address the challenge discussed above done within the parameters of research, industry and the consorted of government agencies (Asín & Gascón, 2012; Wendi B. Heinzelman, Murphy, Carvalho, & Perillo, 2004; Shen, Chavalit Srisathapornphat, & Jaikaeo, 2001). Innovative solutions in the design of energy sensitive nodes have been done by ANT and ZigBee (Mainetti, Patrono, & Vilei2, 2011) (An uncommon abbreviation used for ZigBee is ZB). In parallel to physical milestones being achieved, algorithmic solutions have been pursued to an extreme extent. This chapter reviews these substantial trend-setters and the path paved for the elevation of WSN. In this chapter, a distinction is formed in two folds. First, a detail review and analysis is done on each of the identified governing paradigms. Second, each algorithm is dissected in detail and deliberation on their comparative performance analysis has been done. Thus, the correlations between the algorithms are vividly displayed at the completion of the chapter. The chapter is presented in the following order. In section II the transcending paradigms of WSN is presented. Section III reviews diverse survey chapters under a comparison of existing survey on WSN. Section IV provides emerging routing algorithms for conventional WSN, Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) and Wireless Sensor Network-Internet Protocol (WSN-IP) as well. Conclusion and future work are proposed in the last section.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Internet of Things (IoT): The network in which physical objects connect to the Internet, and Internet-enabled devices connect to everyday things. Things can refer to a wide variety of devices in e-health or agriculture applications, sensors in automobile or in search and rescue devices.

Network Simulation: Is the technique where behavior of a network is simulated by a program models.

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA): The method that is used in shared medium networks in order to avoid collision. Users in these networks send their data among different time slots.

Hotspot Problem: The nodes which are located geographically closest to the BS are responsible to deliver its own data in addition to those belonging to others nodes. Thus, impose dual types of traffic management and with an increased traffic volume for these respective nodes. These nodes are faced with the constant threat of being subject to consume large portions of energy as compared to other nodes. These critical nodes eventually emerge most unwillingly among the set of nodes to be the node that will die first. These network divisions of nodes are also referred as the hotspot problem.

Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN): A Wireless networks which make interconnected devices able to retrieve multimedia content such as video and audio streams.

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA): The method that is used in shared medium networks in order to avoid collision. Users in these networks share a band of frequencies.

Data-Centric Protocols: In data-centric protocols, nodes do not have any global identification numbers, so they send data directly or through intermediate nodes to the sink.

Wireless Sensor Network-Internet Protocol (WSN-IP): A Wireless network which is formed from Integrating of IP in WSNs.

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