Energy-Saving Systems Using Photovoltaic Modules

Energy-Saving Systems Using Photovoltaic Modules

Pavel Valentinovich Tikhonov (Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM, Russia), Vladimir Aleksandrovich Mayorov (Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM, Russia) and Konstantin Sergeevich Morenko (Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM, Russia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1216-6.ch018

Abstract

The chapter presents the results of the development of two systems. The first is a photovoltaic system parallel to the power supply network of LED lamps. The algorithms of the system operation for both working and emergency lighting are shown. The basic operating modes of the system are considered taking into account the criterion of the minimum cost of electricity generated. These modes provide the most complete use of solar energy in the working day with minimal additional costs, allowing the consumer to save on electricity and increase the reliability of the emergency lighting system. The second system is a solar photovoltaic module built into a standard double-glazed window sash size 730x700 (mm), which is designed to charge a block of lithium-ion batteries with a capacity of 6.8 Ah with an output voltage of 5.25 V, the energy of which can be used to power any device having a USB 2.0 connector. The results of calculation of the required peak photovoltaic power of the module are presented; the technology of its sealing is described.
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Background

The development of solar energy naturally occurred in the direction of low-power power systems to power plants with a capacity of tens and hundreds of megawatts. However, currently photovoltaic modules with a capacity of hundreds of watts have not lost their relevance. Especially widely autonomous systems are used in agriculture both in animal husbandry (Tursunov, Sabirov, Hwoan, Turdiev, Shirmatov & Yuldoshev, 2013) and in crop production (Ismanzhanov & Tashiev, 2016). The use of low-power systems in urban environments is due not least to the advanced development of energy-efficient low-current electronics and lighting equipment at a constant current. Solar photovoltaic modules provide electricity of this kind without losses for conversion. All this directly contributes to the development of systems where a significant part of the network operates on direct current (Dragičević, Vasquez & Guerrero, 2016). Switching to DC networks, reduces conversion losses and avoids additional devices, increasing reliability and reducing cost. Therefore, the power supply of the load with direct current from photovoltaic panels, it is expedient to carry out directly. Accordingly, in the presented photovoltaic system, the work of led lamps is carried out directly on a direct current, but in parallel to the led modules, the energy from the grid is also supplied. The paper presents in detail the approaches to such parallel operation of led lamps from photovoltaic modules and power supply. The approach of the proposed solution differs significantly from the developed similar solutions, which are based on supercapacitors, batteries as buffer tanks, controllers on a high-frequency transformer (Vieira & Mota, 2010; Ali, Lange, Elrayyah, Sozer, De Abreu-Garcia & Mpanda, 2018). The described solution allows to create cheap and reliable in comparison with analogs lighting system based on photovoltaic modules.

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