Energy-Saving Technologies for Pre-Sowing Seed Treatment in a Magnetic Field

Energy-Saving Technologies for Pre-Sowing Seed Treatment in a Magnetic Field

Volodymyr Kozyrskiy (National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine), Vitaliy Savchenko (National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine), Oleksandr Sinyavsky (National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine) and Vasyl Bunko (Berezhansk Agrotechnical Institute, Ukraine)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9420-8.ch009

Abstract

The purpose of the research was to establish the mechanism of the magnetic field impact on seeds to determine the most effective mode of pre-sowing treatment of seeds in a magnetic field and design parameters of the device for magnetic treatment of seeds. It is established that under the influence of a magnetic field the rate of chemical reactions occurring in plant cells is accelerated, solubility of salts and acids increases, and permeability of cell membranes accelerates the diffusion of molecules and ions through them. This leads to an increase in the concentration of ions in the cell and oxygen molecules and the growth of water absorption of seeds. Pre-sowing seed treatment promotes increased germination by 25-40%, and germination by 30 - 35%. The most effective pre-sowing treatment of seeds in a magnetic field is a magnetic induction of 0.065 Tl with four reversal magnetization, a pole division of 0.23 m and a seed movement speed of 0.4 m/s. With this mode of treatment, crop yields increase by 20–25%.
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Background

Synthesis of organic matter in plants comes from water, mineral salts and carbon dioxide. All biochemical processes in plant cells occur in an aqueous medium. The transport of the elements of the power into the cell is provided by two autonomous mechanisms - the passive flow of matter with the electrochemical gradient and their active transport against the electrochemical gradient (Yagodin, Zhukov, & Kobzarenko, 2002).

The ions pass through the membrane as a result of the diffusion process or together with the solvent. The membrane also provides direct passage of water and dissolved substances in it. The constant passage of ions through the membrane results in a continuous flow of new ions into it to equalize the concentration.

Since the ions have an electric charge, the process of their passage through the membrane depends on the difference in concentration and the magnitude of the diffusion potential arising between the two solutions with different concentrations of matter separated by the membrane.

The electromagnetic field affects the transport of ions and molecules of substances in the cell, contributes to increasing the sowing quality of seeds and yields of crops. In recent years, electrophysical methods have been developed for the seed treatment of certain crops in the electric field of corona discharge, magnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, etc. Based on the analysis of the electrophysical methods of seed treatment, one can conclude that magnetic seed treatment is a promising method that has significant advantages over other methods. (Zholobova, 2012).

Magnetic field affects aqueous solutions. It has now been experimentally established that magnetic treatment of water changes its physical and chemical properties: coagulation and absorption are accelerated, solubility of salts and concentration of gases, crystallization and wetting, magnetic susceptibility, viscosity, hydration of ions, kinetics of chemical reactions change. (Malkin, Zhuravskaya, & Kovalenko, 2015; Klassen, 1982).

Permanent magnetic field is used for the seed treatment. The seed treatment by a variable magnetic field in many appeared to be ineffective, so was supplemented by other types of treatmen (ultraviolet, corona discharge field). As a result, the cost of installations with electromagnets far outweighs the cost of installations with permanent magnets, increasing operating costs and energy intensity of the process of seeds processing.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Germination: The ability to form well developed seed sprouts.

Biopotential: The difference of potentials between two points of tissue which reflects its bioelectric activity.

Diffusion: The process of mutual penetration of molecules or atoms of one substance among other atoms or molecules, which usually leads to equilibrium of their concentrations in the occupied volume.

Germination Energy: Seed capacity to germinate fast and together.

pH (Hydrogen): The value which shows the extent of the activity of hydrogen ions (H +) in a solution.

Rate of Chemical Reactions: The change of the concentration of reactants or a reaction product per unit time

Magnetic Field: The component of electromagnetic field, due to which the interaction occurs between moving electrically charged particles.

Oxidation-Reduction Potential (Redox): is a measure of the chemical activity of elements or their compounds in reversible chemical processes associated with a change in the charge of ions in solutions

Magnetic Induction: A vector physical value, the main characteristic feature of the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field.

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