Entrepreneurial Education: Source of Social Transformation

Entrepreneurial Education: Source of Social Transformation

Noemia Carneiro de Araujo Resende (Federal Institute of Bahia, Brazil & UNIAESO, Brazil & Centro Universitário UniRuy Wyden em Salvador, Brazil), André Luiz Cardoso Coelho (Centro Universitário UniRuy Wyden em Salvador, Brazil), Elisandro dos Santos Lima (Centro Universitário UniRuy Wyden em Salvador, Brazil), Maria Raidalva Nery Barreto (Federal Institute of Bahia, Brazil) and Jocelma Almeida Rios (Federal Institute of Bahia, Brazil)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2925-6.ch011
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Abstract

This chapter presents entrepreneurial education as a source of social transformation in relation to the urgent need to adapt to the new modus operandi, influenced by economic and social forces. The goal is to provoke reflections on the theoretical conception of being an entrepreneur, the education, the entrepreneurial activity that drives changes, the growth and the development of the local and global economies based on the analysis of entrepreneurial education in Brazil as a methodic journey through a literature review and critical analysis by the authors, who gather solid experience in the area of education for entrepreneurship. As a result of the study, there is the need for intensive investments which offer entrepreneurial education from basic education, in order to attend the continuous training directed to students, beginner and experienced entrepreneurs, and to individuals in immigration situations.
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Introduction

The current scenario of constant change presents the need for vision and systemic action as a minimum requirement to adapt to new realities. The innovations and new technologies overcome the distances and geographical barriers, the economic factors that directly impact on the social behavior of the countries and reverberate in the international relations and consequently in the economic and social indicators.

Entrepreneurship education can be understood as the creation of a service or product that produces economic value and directs self-employment, in addition to developing new capacities and skills that are crucial to running the enterprise (Aiub, 2002; Hansemark, 1998).

In Brazil, one of the most relevant aspects for the description of entrepreneurship is the ability to generate jobs, but the survey conducted by Global Entrepreneurship Monitor [GEM], (2017) identified a high percentage of 68.4% of experienced entrepreneurs without a job, which leads to understanding the self-occupation movement. It is possible to understand this increase from the analysis of the average unemployment rate of 2017, recorded in the second quarter at 12.7%, according to data from the National Household Sample Survey - Continuous (PNAD Continuous), from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics [IBGE]. It reveals the highest index in the historical series, which started in 2012.

According to GEM (2017), despite the increase in entrepreneurship for self-occupation, one of the greatest characteristics of entrepreneurial activity in Brazil is the expressive generation of income occupation for employees and / or family members. Initial entrepreneurs in 2017, informal or formal, employed more than 8 million people and formal experienced entrepreneurs, approximately 11 million. Thus, it is not possible to imagine the country without entrepreneurial activity and to deny its relevance for economic development.

If entrepreneurship is the focus point for the growth and the development of the economy, then it is highly necessary to invest in entrepreneurial education. Knowledge is the driving force of social and economic transformation.

The mortality of companies, evidently, is related to the lack of knowledge; they are born “stillborn”.

According to SEBRAE (2014), the reasons for the “cause of death” of companies are linked to: (1) lack of prior planning, (2) business management and (3) entrepreneur behavior. Thus, targeted training is essential in order to reduce the mortality of companies and to provide opportunities for the increase of new-trained entrepreneurs.

According to Espejo and Previdelli (2006), in this context, the relevance of entrepreneurial education is justified as a key point for the achievement of economic development and the fight against poverty, in addition to providing essential skills and equipping with techniques and tools, making it possible to face adversity, especially for individuals who seek to or are already residing in other countries.

There are some studies on the relevance of entrepreneurship from immigration and these highlight as a positive impact for the generation of income and social mobility. In international literature there is mention of Cuban refugees in Miami, Dominicans in New York, Chinese in their chinatowns, rich port, among others (Portes & Zhou, 1992; Zhou, 2004).

According to the bibliometric review “Immigrant and Ethnic Entrepreneurship” conducted by Falcão and Cruz (2016) they point out that it is necessary to research aspects related to entrepreneurship and human capital. The first would be related to the role that prior knowledge - whether through education or professional experiences - plays on immigrant businesses in the process of recognizing opportunities, for each of the different ethnicities and different local contexts. Another would be the investigation of how the traits of a national culture can contribute to immigrant entrepreneurship. In this way, it is possible to understand the need for entrepreneurial education accessible to all.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Established Entrepreneur: Individual who operates in the market.

Beginner Entrepreneur: Individual who begins to undertake or prepare to start.

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